Ontogenesis of Circadian Rhythm of Melatonin Synthesis in Pineal Gland of Rat
Part of the
Journal of Neural Transmission
book series (NEURAL SUPPL, volume 13)
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity regulates the circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis in pineal gland. NAT rhythm persisted in continuous darkness or in blinded rats. Development of the circadian rhythm of NAT activity was followed in the infant rats raised under various lighting schedules. The pups born and raised in continuous darkness or under constant illumination showed a rhythmic change indicating that the biological clock for NAT is generated inborn independent of environmental light-dark schedules. In the absence of light, the rhythm of pups synchronized with mother’s rhythm.
When rats were maintained under a ultradian light-dark schedule (LD 6: 6), NAT activity showed a circadian change increasing once a day. When pups were born and raised under the ultradian lighting condition, NAT activity rhythm coincided with mother’s rhythm. When pups were raised by a foster mother who had an inverted rhythm from that of an original mother, the rhythm of the pups synchronized with that of the foster mother. When pups were separated from their mother daily for 12 hours, their NAT rhythms reappeared when they were separated from their mother. These observations indicated a novel mechanism that in the absence of light-dark schedule, mothers taught the circadian rhythm to the pups as they raised them.
: The pineal gland: a neurochemical transducer. Science 184
, 1341–1348 (1974).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
., Wurtman, R. J
., Snyder, S. H.
: Control of hydroxyindole-Omethyltransferase activity in the rat pineal gland by environmental lighting. J. Biol. Chem. 240
, 949–954 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
Brownstein, M., Axelrod, J.
: Pineal gland: 24-hour rhythm in norepin-ephrine turnover. Science 184
, 163–165 (1974).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
: Role of β-adrenergic receptor in the elevation of adenosine cyclic 3′, 5′-monophosphate and induction of serotonin N-acetyltransferase in rat pineal gland. Molec. Pharmacol. 9
, 184–190 (1973).Google Scholar
: Shift of circadian rhythm in serotonin: acetyl coenzyme A N-acetyltransferase activity in pineal gland of rat in continuous darkness or in the blinded rat. J. Neurochem. 25
, 91–93 (1975a).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
: Ontogenesis of a biological clock for serotonin: acetyl coenzyme A N-acetyltransferase in pineal gland of rat. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72
, 2814–2818 (1975 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
: Circadian rhythms of enzyme and running activity under ultradian lighting schedule. Am. J. Physiol. 232
, E375–E381 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
Deguchi, T., Axelrod, J
.: Induction and superinduction of serotonin N-acetyltransferase by adrenergic drugs and denervation in the rat pineal. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69
, 2208–2211 (1972 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deguchi, T., Axelrod, J.
: Control of circadian change of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in pineal by the β-adrenergic receptor. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69
, 2547–2550 (1972 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellison, N., Weiler, J. L., Klein, D. C.
: Development of a circadian rhythm in the activity of pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase. J. Neurochem. 19
, 1335–1341 (1972).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Klein, D. C., Weiler, J. L.
: Indole metabolism in the pineal gland: a circadian rhythm in N-acetyltransferase. Science 169
, 1093–1095 (1970).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Klein, D. C., Weiler, J. L., Moore, R. Y.
: Melatonin metabolism: neural regulation of pineal serotonin: acetyl coenzyme A N-acetyltransferase activity. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68
, 3107–3110 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, H. J.
: Diurnal oscillation in pineal melatonin content. Life Sci. 10
, 791–795 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, R. Y., Klein, D. C.
: Visual pathways and the central neural control of a circadian rhythm in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity. Brain Res. 71
, 17–33 (1974).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Orth, D. N., Island, D. P., Liddle, G. W.
: Experimental alteration of the circadian rhythm in plasma cortisol (17-OHCS) concentration in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 27
, 549–555 (1967).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Quay, W. B.
: Circadian rhythm in rat pineal serotonin and its modifications by estrous cycle and photoperiod. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 3
, 473–479 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, S. H., Zweig, M., Axelrod, J., Fisher, J. E.
: Control of the circadian rhythm in serotonin content of the pineal gland. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 53
, 301–305 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weissbach, H., Redfield, B. C., Axelrod, J.
: Biosynthesis of melatonin: enzymic conversion of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 43
, 352–353 (1960).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Weitzman, E. D., Nogeire, C., Perlow, M., Fukushima, D., Sassin, J., McGregor, P., Gallagher, T. F., Hellman, L.
: Effect of a prolonged 3-hour sleep-wake cycle on sleep stages, plasma cortisol, growth hormone and body temperature in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 38
, 1018–1030 (1974).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
© Springer-Verlag Wien 1978