Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration

  • Susanne A. SchneiderEmail author


Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare clinically complex autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to PANK2 gene mutations. It is one of the syndromes with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Onset is usually in early childhood. Typical clinical features that comprise dystonia, spasticity, retinitis pigmentosa, and pallidal hypointensities with a central area (eye of the tiger sign) on magnetic resonance imaging may be the diagnostic clue. Diagnostic genetic testing is available. Therapy remains symptomatic including drugs, deep brain stimulation, and supportive therapies. Reports on chelating therapies are controversial. A placebo-controlled randomized trial is on the way.


Neurodegeneration Brain iron Dystonia Retinitis pigmentosa T2* MRI Spheroids Eye of the tiger sign PANK2 gene Chelating therapy Deep brain stimulation 

Supplementary material

Video 38.1

The video shows a 21-year-old patient with molecularly proven PKAN (c.1253C>T, homozygous). There is generalized dystonia with dystonic grimacing and dystonic eye blinking when performing repetitive movements which are impaired on the right more than the left. There is dystonic posturing of her right leg and foot when walking. She has dysarthria and personality changes (MOV 5245 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of München and University of KielMünchen (Munich)Germany

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