Advertisement

Zoonotic viruses of wildlife: hither from yon

  • J. E. Childs
Chapter
Part of the Archives of Virology. Supplementa book series (ARCHIVES SUPPL, volume 18)

Summary

The emergence of zoonotic viruses maintained by wildlife reservoir hosts is poorly understood. Recent discoveries of Hendra (HENV) and Nipah (NIPV) viruses in Australasia and the emergence of epidemic West Nile virus (WNV) in the United States have added urgency to the study of cross-species transmission. The processes by which zoonotic viruses are transmitted and infect other species are examined as four transitions. Two of these, inter-species contact and cross-species virus transmission (spillover), are essential and sufficient to cause epidemic emergence. Sustained transmission and virus adaptation within the spillover host are transitions not required for virus emergence, but determine the magnitude and scope of subsequent disease outbreaks. Ecologic, anthropogenic, and evolutionary factors modify the probability that viruses complete or move through transitions. As surveillance for wildlife diseases is rare and often outbreak-driven, targeted studies are required to elucidate the means by which important zoonotic viruses are maintained and spillover occurs.

Keywords

West Nile Virus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Rabies Virus Rift Valley Fever Emerg Infect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Baer GM, Neville J, Turner GS (1996) Rabbis and rabies. Laboratorios Baer, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Childs JE, Curns AT, Dey ME, Real LA, Feinstein L, Bjornstad ON, Krebs JW (2000) Predicting the local dynamics of epizootic rabies among raccoons in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:13666–13671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chua KB, Lam SK, Goh KJ, Hooi PS, Ksiazek TG, Kamarulzaman A, Olson J, Tan CT (2001) The presence of Nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia. J. Infect 42:40–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cleaveland S, Laurenson MK, Taylor LH (2001) Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:991–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2000) Wildlife ecology — Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife — Threats to biodi versity and human health. Science 287:443–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dobson A, Foufopoulos J (2001) Emerging infectious pathogens of wildlife. Philos Tran s R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:1001–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eidson M, Kramer L, Stone W, Hagiwara Y, Schmit K (2001) Dead bird surveillance as an early warning system for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 7:7631–7635Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, Hall L, Mackenzie J (2001) The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 3:307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friend M, McLean RG (2002) The role of native birds and other wildlife on the emergence of zoonotic diseases. In: The emergence of zoonotic diseases: understanding the impact on animal and human health (Workshop Summary, ed). National Academy Press, Washington DC, pp 52–58Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Glass GE, Yates TL, Fine JB, Shields TM, Kendall JB, Hope AG, Parmenter CA, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG, Li CS, Patz JA, Mills IN (2002) Satellite imagery characterizes local animal reservoir populations of Sin Nombre virus in the southwestern United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:16817–16822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hahn BH, Shaw GM, De Cock KM, Sharp PM (2000) AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications. Science 287:607–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haydon DT, Cleaveland S, Taylor LH, Laurenson MK (2002) Identifying reservoirs of infection: a conceptual and practical challenge. Emerg Infect Dis 8:1468–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holmes EC (2001) On the origin and evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 76:239–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hooper P, Zaki S, Daniels P, Middleton D (2001) Comparative pathology of the diseases caused by Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 3:315–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hudson PJ, Rizzoli A, Grenfell BT, Heesterbeek H, Dobson AP (eds) (2002) The Ecology of wildlife diseases. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Institute of Medicine (1992) Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Komar N, Langevin S, Hinten S, Nemeth N, Edwards E, Hettler D, Davis B, Bowen R, Bunning M (2003) Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 9:311–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Peret T, Emery S, Tong S, Urbani C, Comer JA, Lim W, Rollin PE, Dowell SF, Ling AE, Humphrey CD, Shieh WJ, Guarner J, Paddock CD, Rota P, Fields B, DeRisi J, Yang JY, Cox N, Hughes JM, LeDuc JW, Bellini WJ, Anderson LJ (2003) A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome.N Engl J Med 348:1953–1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, Crise B, Volpe KE, Crabtree MB, Scherret JH, Hall RA, Mackenzie JS, Cropp CB, Panigrahy B, Ostlund E, Schmitt B, Malkinson M, Banet C, Weissman J, Komar N, Savage HM, Stone W, McNamara T, Gubler DJ (1999) Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286:2333–2337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Linthicum KJ, An yamba A, Tucker CJ, Kelley PW, Myers MF, Peters CJ (1999) Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya. Science 285:397–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mackenzie JS, Chua KB, Daniels PW, Eaton BT, Field HE, Hall RA, Halpin K, Johansen CA, Kirkland PD, Lam SK, McMinn P, Nisbet DJ, Paru R, Pyke AT, Ritchie SA, Siba P, Smith DW, Smith GA, van den Hurk AF, Wang LF, WiIliams DT (2001) Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerg Infect Dis 7:497–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Malkinson M, Banet C, Weisman Y, Pokamunski S, King R, Drouet MT, Deubel V (2002) Introduction of West Nile virus in the Middle East by migrating white storks. Emerg Infect Dis 8:392–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mills IN, Childs JE (1998) Ecological studies of rodent reservoirs: their relevance for human health. Emerg Infect Dis 4:529–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mims CA (1995) Virology research and virulent human pandemics. Epidemiol Infect 115:377–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Morse SS (1995) Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 1:7–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ostfeld RS, Keesing F (2000) Biodiversity and disease risk: the case of Lyme disease. Conserv Biol 14:722–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Peeters M, Courgnaud V, Abela B, Auzel P, Pourrut X, Bibollet-Ruche F, Loul S, Liegeois F, Butel C, Koulagna D, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Shaw GM, Hahn BH, Delaporte E (2002) Risk to human health from a plethora of simian immunodeficiency viruses in primate bushmeat. Emerg Infect Dis 8:451–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reeves WC (1990) Epidemiology and control of mosquito-borne arboviruses in California. California Mosquito and Vector Control Association, Inc., Sacramento, 1943–1987Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schrag SJ, Wiener P (1995) Emerging infectious disease: what are the relative roles of ecology and evolution? Trends Ecol Evol 10:319–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shaman J, Day JF, Stieglitz M (2002) Drought-induced amplification of Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Florida. Emerg Infect Dis 8:575–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Walsh PD, Abernethy KA, Bermejo M, Beyers R, De Wachter P, Akou ME, Huijbregts B, Mambounga DJ, Toham AK, Kilbourn AM, Lahm SA, Latour S, Maisels F, Mbina C, Mihindou Y, Obiang SN, Effa EN, Starkey MP, Telfer P, Thibault M, Tutin CE, White LJ, Wilkie DS (2003) Catastrophic ape decline in Western equatorial Africa. Nature 422:611–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang L, Harcourt BH, Yu M, Tamin A, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, Eaton BT (2001) Molecular biology of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 3:279–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gordon ER, Curns AT, Krebs JW, Rupprecht CE, Real LA, Childs JE. Temporal dynamics of rabie s in a wildlife host and the risk of interspecific transmission. Epidemiol Infect (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Childs
    • 1
  1. 1.Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses BranchNational Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations