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Herztumoren und Perikarderkrankungen

  • Torsten BossertEmail author
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Zusammenfassung

In der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts wurden Herztumoren autoptisch diagnostiziert. 1954 erfolgte die erste chirurgische Entfernung eines Vorhofmyxoms durch Clarence Crafoord. Primäre Herztumoren sind selten – in einer großen Sammelstatistik über 731.309 Autopsien fand sich eine Inzidenz von 0,02 %. Die klinische Symptomatik von Herztumoren ist variabel und abhängig von Tumorlokalisation und Ausdehnung. Die Diagnosestellung gestaltet sich gelegentlich schwierig. Während früher schwere zerebrale oder periphere Embolien im Vordergrund standen und Patienten mit dekompensierter Herzinsuffizienz und mit erhöhter Operationsletalität gesehen wurden, zeigt der frühzeitige Einsatz der Echokardiographie auch als Screening-Methode einen deutlichen Wandel im klinischen Bild. Die meisten benignen Herztumoren stellen daher Zufallsbefunde dar. Allerdings sind die Patienten gefährdet, durch einen histologisch benignen Tumor am plötzlichen Herztod zu sterben, akut kardial zu dekompensieren und periphere Embolien zu erleiden. Da der natürliche Verlauf nicht vorhergesagt werden kann und die definitive Histologie erst durch die Operation geklärt werden kann, besteht prinzipiell immer eine Indikation zur Operation. Im Kindes- und Jugendalter kommen Rhabdomyome, Teratome oder Fibrome vor. Die Therapie der primären malignen Tumoren des Herzens und auch der sekundären Metastasen ist nach wie vor unbefriedigend.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Herz- und GefäßchirurgieMediClin Herzzentrum CoswigCoswigDeutschland

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