Reservoir Type and Origin

  • Yongsheng MaEmail author


The reservoir, also known as reservoir rock, is one of the basic factors controlling the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reservoir features, such as the type, internal structure, reservoir properties, horizon, thickness, and distribution patterns, control the type, distribution, and productivity of oil and gas reservoirs. Common reservoir lithologies in marine facies systems include carbonate rock, clastic rock, and unconventional shale. In the past 10 years, considerable progress has been made with respect to the research in the field and breakthroughs have been achieved in many marine oil and gas exploration fields in China. This chapter focuses on the carbonate reservoir research progress. A detailed summary of Chinese marine carbonate reservoir rock types, the reservoir space, genetic distribution, and exploration potential is provided and the development of marine clastic rock and shale reservoirs is briefly discussed. While the identification characteristics of various types of reservoirs, marine layer descriptions, prediction technologies, and other relevant research will be discussed detailly in Part II of this book.


  1. Bai G (2006) Distribution characteristics of large carbonate oil and gas fields in the world. J Paleogeogr 02:241–250Google Scholar
  2. Bai W, Lv X, Li X et al (2002) Karstification model and fine description of paleogeomorphology in paleokarst Basin—Taking Ordovician weathering crust in the east of Ordos Basin as an example. Geoscience 03:292–298Google Scholar
  3. Center for Strategic Research of oil and gas resources, Ministry of Land and Resources (2014) Strategic investigation and evaluation of pre-Paleogene oil and gas resources in North China. Geological Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen Z (1995) Fractured gas reservoir in Permian and Triassic carbonate fault zone in Southwest Sichuan. Acta Petrolei Sinica 03:37–43Google Scholar
  5. Chen Z (2007) Gas exploration in Maokou Formation of Middle Permian in Sichuan Basin. China Pet Explor 05:1–11Google Scholar
  6. Chen Z (2010) On the exploration of Ordovician Natural Gas in Sichuan Basin. Nat Gas Ind 30(01):23–30Google Scholar
  7. Chen Z, Zhang S, Wan L (1988) The formation of structural fractures in mudstone and the prediction of reservoir distribution in Qingshankou Formation in the north of Gulong depression. Acta Petrolei Sinica 04:7–15Google Scholar
  8. Chen J, Heng F, Liu Y et al (2011) Sedimentary environment and evolution of Zhujiang Formation in dongshalong, Pearl River Mouth Basin. J Oil Gas Technol 33(02):21–26Google Scholar
  9. Chen Z, Yong Z, Zhu J et al (2013) Shale Characteristics of Wufeng Longmaxi formation in Nanchuan area, Southeast Sichuan Basin. J Chengdu Univ Technol (Science & Technology Edition) 40(06):696–702Google Scholar
  10. Chi X, Sun W (2011) Ordovician sequence paleogeography and reservoir characteristics in Jizhong depression. Marine Geological Frontier 27(03):11–16Google Scholar
  11. Dai J, He S (2005) Ordovician paleogeomorphology of gas field in central Ordos Basin. Acta Petrolei Sinica 03:37–39Google Scholar
  12. Ding X et al (2001) Cretaceous Tertiary sedimentary facies and reservoir analysis in Tarim Basin. Xinjiang. Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 02:146–155Google Scholar
  13. Du J, Pan W (2016) Hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and exploration direction of lower salt dolomite in the Cambrian of Tarim Basin. Pet Explor Dev 43(03):327–339Google Scholar
  14. Fan J (2005) Reservoir characteristics of carbonate oil and gas fields in the world and main controlling factors for their accumulation. Earth Sci Front 03:23–30Google Scholar
  15. Fei B, Wang J (2005) The third exploration case of marine oil and gas fields in China. Discovery and exploration of Renqiu buried hill oil field in Bohai Bay basin. Mar Origin Pet Geol 03:43–50Google Scholar
  16. Feng W (1986) Current situation and Prospect of non-Darcy low velocity percolation. Pet Explor Dev 04:76–80Google Scholar
  17. Feng X, Zhang C, Wang C et al (2001) Mesozoic and its oil and gas exploration potential in the East China Sea shelf and southwest Taiwan Basin. China Offshore Oil and Gas (Geology) 05:7–11Google Scholar
  18. Fu S, Chen H, Zhongtang S et al (2015) Microfacies characteristics and evolution of assemblages in Majiagou Formation of Ordovician in Ordos Basin. China Min Mag 24(03):81–86Google Scholar
  19. Gao D, Lin C, Yang H et al (2013) Sedimentary microfacies of Lianglitage Formation in Tazhong area and its control on favorable reservoirs. Geoscience (J China Univ Geosci): 38(04):819–831Google Scholar
  20. Guo X (2002) Petroleum geology of Paleozoic in North China. Geological Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  21. Guo C, Shi Z (2009) Diagenesis and pore evolution of sandstone in the first member of Shahejie formation. Qikou Depress: Lithol Reserv 21(01):34–39Google Scholar
  22. Guo X, Li Y, Wei Q (2012) Paleokarst development characteristics and exploration fields of Maokou Formation in Southeast Sichuan. J Southwest Pet Univ (Science & Technology Edition) 34(06):1–8Google Scholar
  23. Guo X, Dongfeng H, Wen Z et al (2014) Main controlling factors for high-yield enrichment of marine shale gas in Sichuan Basin and its surrounding Lower PaleozoicTaking Wufeng Formation Longmaxi formation in jiaoshiba area as an example. Geol China 41(03):893–901Google Scholar
  24. Han J, Sun C, Hongfeng Yu et al (2011) Development dynamics and reservoir control mechanism of Ordovician Reef Beach Complex in Tazhong I slope break zone. Acta Petrologica Sinica 27(03):845–856Google Scholar
  25. Hao Z (2013) Assemblage lithofacies and reservoir characteristics of Majiagou Formation in the eastern margin of paleouplift in Ordos Basin. Chengdu University of technology, Master’s degreeGoogle Scholar
  26. Hao Y, Zhou J, Zhang J et al (2013) Dolomite reservoir characteristics and controlling factors of the Middle Permian Qixia Formation in Northwest Sichuan. Sediment Tethys Geol 33(01):68–74Google Scholar
  27. He D, Jia C, Sheng D et al (2005a) Formation and evolution of Multicycle Superimposed Basins in Tarim. Oil Gas Geol 01:64–77Google Scholar
  28. He Z, Zheng C, Wang C et al (2005b) Discovery and exploration of Jingbian gas field in Ordos Basin, the second exploration case of marine oil and gas field in China. Marine Origin Pet Geol 02:37–44Google Scholar
  29. He Z, Huang D, Zheng C (2006) Modification of Ordovician paleogeomorphology and paleogroove model in Ordos Basin and its geological significance. Marine Pet Geol 02:25–28Google Scholar
  30. Hill DG, Lombardi TE, Martin JP (2002) Fractured shale gas potential in New York. Colorado, TICORA Geosciences Inc, Arvada, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  31. Hou Yu, Lei K, Chen Y (2015) Prediction of favorable reservoir development area of Qixia Formation in daxingchang area, Southwest Sichuan. Nat Gas Explor Dev 38(01):30–32Google Scholar
  32. Hu P, Wang J (1996) The tertiary reefs in the Pearl River Mouth Basin Fan Jiasong. China reefs and oil and gas. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 294–325Google Scholar
  33. Hu C, Zheng R, Dai C (2010) Characteristics of Liuhua reef and reservoir in Zhujiang Formation. Pearl River Mouth Basin: Lithol Reserv 22(03):59–65Google Scholar
  34. Huang J, Zhu R, Hou D et al (2007) Development mechanism of secondary pores in deep clastic reservoirs. Geol Sci Technol Inf 06:76–82Google Scholar
  35. Huang F, Chen H, Hou M et al (2011a) Sedimentary sequence filling process and evolution model of Caledonian (Cambrian Silurian) in the middle and upper Yangtze craton. Acta Petrologica Sinica 27(08):2299–2317Google Scholar
  36. Huang W, Liu S, Ma W et al (2011b) Oil and gas exploration prospect of Ordovician in Sichuan Basin. Oil Gas Geol 32(03):461–473Google Scholar
  37. Huang W, Wang A, Wan H et al (2012) Reservoir characteristics and dolomite genesis of Cambrian Ordovician carbonate rocks in Tarim Basin. J Paleogeogr, 197–208Google Scholar
  38. Huang Q, Liu D, Ye N et al (2013) Reservoir characteristics and diagenesis of Cambrian dolomite in Tarim Basin. J Northeast Pet Univ 37(06):63–74Google Scholar
  39. Jia C, Pang X (2015) Research progress and main development direction of deep oil and gas geology. Acta Petrolei Sinica 36(12):1457–1469Google Scholar
  40. Jia C, Li B, Zhang X et al (2007) Formation and evolution of marine basins in China. Sci Bull S1:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jia C, Zou C, Li J et al (2012) Evaluation standard, main types, basic characteristics and resource prospect of tight oil in China. Acta Petroleuca Sinica 33(03):343–350Google Scholar
  42. Jiang Z, Lin S, Pang X et al (2006) Correlation of two types of tight sandstone gas reservoirs. Pet Exp Geol 03:210–214Google Scholar
  43. Jiang Q, Suyun H, Wang Z et al (2012) Karst paleogeomorphology and exploration area of Maokou Formation in Sichuan Basin. Acta Petrolei Sinica 33(06):949–960Google Scholar
  44. Jiao K, Yao S, Wu H et al (2014) Progress in characterization of pore system of shale gas reservoir. Geol J China Univ 20(01):151–161Google Scholar
  45. Jin Z, Cai L (2006) Prospects, main problems and Countermeasures of marine oil and gas exploration in China. Oil Gas Geol 06:722–730Google Scholar
  46. Jin Z, Cai L (2007) Succession and innovation of oil and gas geological theory of marine strata in China. Acta Geol Sin 08:1017–1024Google Scholar
  47. Kang Z, Wu M (2003) Recovery of karst paleogeomorphology by sequence stratigraphy: taking 6 area of Tahe oilfield as an example. Geol Xinjiang 03:290–292Google Scholar
  48. Kang J, Lin X, Tian J et al (2011) Reservoir characteristics of reef beach facies of Lianglitage Formation in Tazhong area. Acta Petrolei Sinica 33(06):40–45Google Scholar
  49. Kong J, He C, Wei C et al (1998) Technical discussion on comprehensive evaluation of carbonate reservoir. Natural Gas Explor Dev 03:1–12Google Scholar
  50. Li D (2010) Paleokarst reservoir study of leisi-leisan member of Leikoupo Formation in longnusi Moxi area, central Sichuan. Master’s degree, Chengdu University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  51. Li J (2013) Study on carbonate reservoir characteristics of buried hill in Shulu depression. Master’s degree, Changjiang UniversityGoogle Scholar
  52. Li Y, Zhang C, Tian J et al (1996) Characteristics of hydrocarbon generation, reservoir and cap of Lower Paleozoic in the southern margin of North China plate. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu, pp 4–48Google Scholar
  53. Li A, Yi H, Liu C et al (2008a) Reservoir characteristics of Jialingjiang formation in Northeast Sichuan. Nat Gas Explor Dev 03:1–5Google Scholar
  54. Li S, Xiao K, Wo Y et al (2008b) The controlling factors for the development of high-quality source rocks from the upper Ordovician to the Lower Silurian of marine facies in South China. Acta Sedimentol Sin 05:872–880Google Scholar
  55. Li J, Dong D, Chen G et al (2009) Shale gas resource prospect and strategic position in China. Nat Gas Ind 29(05):11–16Google Scholar
  56. Li Yu, Ming H, Deng S et al (2011) Study on reservoir heterogeneity of Wumishan formation in liu58 buried hill of North China Oilfield. J Sichuan Geol 31(03):293–296Google Scholar
  57. Li L, Tan X, Zhou S et al (2012) Sequence lithofacies paleography of Leikoupo Formation, Sichuan Basin. J Southwest Pet Univ (Science & Technology Edition) 34(4):13–22Google Scholar
  58. Li G, Wang X, Luo P et al (2014) Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Sinian Doushantuo Formation in Northwest Hunan. Coal Geology in China 26(06):5–9Google Scholar
  59. Li P, Luoping, Song J et al (2015) Characteristics and main controlling factors of microbial carbonate reservoir: Taking the Upper Sinian Lower Cambrian in the northwest margin of Tarim Basin as an example. Acta Petrolei Sinica 36(09):1074–1089Google Scholar
  60. Li S, Guoming X, Song X (2016) Formation conditions of large gas fields in Leikoupo Formation, Longmen Piedmont structural belt Western Sichuan. China Pet Explor 21(03):74–82Google Scholar
  61. Liang D, Guo T, Bian L et al (2009) Some new advances in the study of marine hydrocarbon generation and accumulation in South China (3) sedimentary facies and development control factors of four sets of regional marine source rocks in South China. Marine Origin Pet Geol 14(02):1–19Google Scholar
  62. Liang C, Jiang Z, Yang Y et al (2012) Shale facies and reservoir spatial characteristics of Wufeng Longmaxi formation in Sichuan Basin. Pet Explor Dev 39(06):691–698Google Scholar
  63. Lin W, Zhou J (2009) New development of deep-water oil and gas exploration in the world and deep-water oil and gas exploration in the north of South China Sea. Pet Geophys Explor 48(06):601–605Google Scholar
  64. Liu D (2013) Reservoir characteristics and formation mechanism of deep Cambrian in Tarim Basin. PhD: Chengdu University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  65. Liu B, Wang Y, Qian X (1997) Genesis and related regional reservoir prediction of two unconformities of Ordovician in North China. Acta Sedimentol Sin 01:26–31Google Scholar
  66. Liu S, Ma Y, Sun W et al (2008) Study on the differences of Sinian oil and gas accumulation between Weiyuan gas field and Ziyang gas bearing area in Sichuan Basin. Acta Geol Sin 03:328–337Google Scholar
  67. Liu S, Ma W, Ji L et al (2011) Shale reservoir characteristics of Lower Silurian Longmaxi formation in eastern Sichuan Basin. Acta Petrologica Sinica 27(08):2239–2252Google Scholar
  68. Liu S, Song J, Luo P et al (2016) Characteristics of deep microbial carbonate reservoirs and their oil and gas exploration prospects in Sichuan Basin. J Chengdu Univ Technol (Science & Technology Edition) 43(02):129–152Google Scholar
  69. Long P, Zhang J, Li Y et al (2012) Prediction of Lower Paleozoic shale gas accumulation conditions and favorable areas in Chongqing and its surrounding areas. Earth Sci Front 19(02):221–233Google Scholar
  70. Loucks RG, Reed RM, Ruppel SC et al (2009) Morphology, genesis, and distribution of nanometer-scale pores in siliceous mudstones of the Mississippian Barnett shale. J Sediment Res 79:848–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Loucks RG, Reed RM, Ruppel SC et al (2010) Preliminary classification of matrix pores in mudrocks. Gulf Coast Association of Geol Soc Trans 60:435–441Google Scholar
  72. Loucks RG, Reed RM, Ruppel SC et al (2012) Spectrum of pore types and networks in mudrocks and a descriptive classification for matrix-related mudrock pores. AAPG Bull 96(6):1071–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lu Z, Luo P (2003) Study on the relationship between faults and fracture cave development in the lower Permian of Sichuan Basin. J Chengdu Univ Technol (Science & Technology Edition) 01:64–68Google Scholar
  74. Luo Z, Wang Y, Deng X et al (1981) Research and development of pore structure of main carbonate reservoirs in China. Pet Explor Dev 05:40–51Google Scholar
  75. Luo P, Zhang J, Liu W et al (2008) Basic characteristics of marine carbonate reservoirs in China. Earth Sci Front 01:36–50Google Scholar
  76. Luo P, Wang S, Li P et al (2013) Present situation and Prospect of microbial carbonate reservoir research. Acta Sedimentol Sin 31(05):807–823Google Scholar
  77. Luo B, Zhou G, Luo W et al (2015) Exploration and discovery of the lower Paleozoic Sinian system in the Middle Sichuan paleouplift and the law of natural gas enrichment. China Pet Explor 20(02):18–29Google Scholar
  78. Ma Q, Wang Z, Wang X et al (2001) Reservoir characteristics and evaluation of Carboniferous bioclastic limestone in Central Tarim Basin. Xinjiang Pet Geol 05:400–404Google Scholar
  79. Ma Y, Guo X, Guo T et al (2005) Discovery of the large-scale Puguang gas field in the Sichuan Basin and its enlightenment for hydrocarbon prospecting. Geol Rev 51(4):477–480Google Scholar
  80. Ma Y, Cai X, Zhao P et al (2010) The development mechanism of high quality deep deep carbonate reservoirs and the “three factors reservoir control” mode -Taking Puguang gas field in Sichuan as an example. Acta Geol Sin 84(08):1087–1094Google Scholar
  81. Ma Y, Cai X, Zhao P (2014) Reef beach reservoir characteristics and formation mechanism of Changxing Feixianguan Formation in Yuanba gas field. Acta Petrolei Sinica 35(06):1001–1011Google Scholar
  82. Mei M (2011) The debate on “ultramicro bacteria”: an important driving force for the study of limestone genesis. J Palaeogeogr 13(04):363–374Google Scholar
  83. Montgomery SL, Jarvie DM, Bowker KA et al (2006) Mississippian Barnett Shale, Fort Worth basin, north-central Texas, Gas-shale play with multi–trillion cubic foot potential Reply. AAPG Bull 90(6):967–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ni X, Yang H, Shen A et al (2010) Fracture characteristics of Ordovician limestone in Tabei area and its control on karst reservoir. Acta Petrolei Sinica 31(06):933–940Google Scholar
  85. Nie H, Tang X, Bian R (2009) Controlling factors of shale gas accumulation and prediction of favorable shale gas development areas in South China. Acta Petrolei Sinica 30(04):484–491Google Scholar
  86. Pan R, Zhu X, Wang X et al (2014) Research progress on formation mechanism of deep effective clastic reservoir. Lithol Reserv 26(04):73–80Google Scholar
  87. Pu B, Jiang Y, Wang Y et al (2010) Analysis of shale gas accumulation conditions and favorable areas in Longmaxi formation of Lower Silurian in Sichuan Basin. Acta Petrolei Sinica 31(02):225–230Google Scholar
  88. Qi L, Yun L (2010) Karst development characteristics and main control factors of Ordovician carbonate rocks in Tahe oilfield. Oil & Gas Geol 31(01):1–12Google Scholar
  89. Qiu Y (2002) Neogene reefs and their petroliferous properties in the South China Sea. Gresearch of Eological South China Sea 000(013):41–54Google Scholar
  90. Qu H, Wang Z, Zhang Z et al (2014) Sedimentary evolution of Late Ordovician margin platform in Tazhong area. Acta Sedimentol Sin 32(05):823–831Google Scholar
  91. Shan C, Zhang T, Guo J et al (2015) Analysis of geological characteristics and shale gas resource potential of Doushantuo Formation of Upper Sinian in the north of Central Yangtze. Geol China 42(06):1944–1958Google Scholar
  92. Slatt RM, O’Brien NR (2011) Pore types in the Barnett and Woodford gas shales, Contribution to understanding gas storage and migration pathways in fine-grained rocks. AAPG Bull 95(12):2017–2030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Song C (2012) Evolution of Mesozoic sedimentary basin in Qiangtang and its significance in oil and gas geology, Doctoral Dissertation, Chinese Academy of Geological SciencesGoogle Scholar
  94. Song J, Luo P, Yang Q et al (2014) Characteristics of microbial carbonate reservoir of Lower Cambrian in Tarim Basin. Pet Explor Dev 41(04):404–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sun Q, Ma Y, Zhao Q et al (2008) Diagenesis differences and influencing factors of reef carbonates in the northern South China Sea. Nat Gas Geosci 05:665–672Google Scholar
  96. Sun L, Zou C, Zhu R et al (2013) Analysis of the formation, distribution and potential of deep oil and gas in China. Pet Explor Dev 40(06):641–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tian J, Lin X, Zhang X et al (2014) Multiple genetic mechanism and superposition effect of beach facies dolomite in Qixia Formation of Middle Permian in Sichuan Basin. Acta Petrologica Sinica 30(03):679–686Google Scholar
  98. Wang Y (2011) Study on diagenesis of unconformity and semi weathering rocks. China University of Petroleum (East China), Master’s degreeGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang Y (2016) Evolution of Upper Ordovician Lianglitag constituent rocks and origin of reservoir space in Tazhong area. Master’s thesis, Peking UniversityGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang B, Al-Aasm IS (2002) Karst-Controlled Diagenesis and Reservoir Development, Example from the Ordovician Main-Reservoir Carbonate Rocks on the Eastern Margin of the Ordos Basin China. AAPG Bull 86(9):1639–1658Google Scholar
  101. Wang D, Jiang Y, Leichang L (1996) Some views on searching for fractured oil and gas reservoirs in shale. Western Explor Eng 02:12–14Google Scholar
  102. Wang X, Hou F, Liu Z (1997) Study on stratiform dolomite reservoir of Dengying Formation in Ziyang area. Pet Explor Dev 02:37–40Google Scholar
  103. Wang J, Tan F, Li Y et al (2004) Oil and gas resource potential analysis of key sedimentary basins in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 10–199Google Scholar
  104. Wang J, Ding J, Wang C et al (2009) Investigation and evaluation of strategic selection of oil and gas resources in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 11–424Google Scholar
  105. Wang Z, Sun C, Zhang Y et al (2010) Analysis on the reef forming background of Ordovician in the slope break zone I of Tazhong. Acta Sedimentological Sinica 28(03):525–533Google Scholar
  106. Wang Z, Jiang H, Wang T et al (2014) Paleo-geomorphology formed during tongwan tectonization in Sichuan Basin and its significance for hydrocarbon accumulation. Pet Explor Dev 41(3):305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wang Z, Xie H, Chen Y et al (2014) Discovery and exploration significance of Cambrian lower salt dolomite primary reservoir in well zhongshen-1 Tarim Basin. China Pet Explor 19(02):1–13Google Scholar
  108. Wang Z, Zhang L, Sun C (2015) Ordovician carbonate karst classification, stage and exploration ideas in Tarim Basin. J Palaeogeogr 17(05):635–644Google Scholar
  109. Warlick D (2006) Gas shale and CBM development in North America. Oil Gas Financ J 3(11):1–5Google Scholar
  110. Wei G, Li J, Xie Z et al (2013a) Geological characteristics and exploration theory of atmospheric field in China. Acta Petrolei Sinica 34(S1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wei G, Shen P, Yang W et al (2013b) Formation conditions and exploration prospect of Sinian gas field in Sichuan Basin. Pet Explor Dev 40(02):129–138Google Scholar
  112. Wu L, Chen C, Jiang C et al (2005) Discussion on Paleogeomorphology restoration technology in oil and gas exploration in China. J Oil Gas Technol S4:25–26Google Scholar
  113. Xia X, Tang J, Guan B et al (1999) Paleokarst geomorphology and gas accumulation characteristics of Ordovician in Ordos Basin. Oil Gas Geol 02:37–40Google Scholar
  114. Xie S, Heng F, Zhang D et al (2013) Carbonate Sequence and sedimentary evolution of Lower Paleozoic in Tarim Basin. Fault Block Oil Gas Field 20(03):305–310Google Scholar
  115. Xu H (1992) Types and reservoir properties of Lower Paleozoic dolomites in North China. Pet Expe Geol 01:68–77Google Scholar
  116. Xu F, Li Q, Kang R et al (2003) Study on fractured mudstone reservoir in Zhanhua Depression. Mineral Rock 01:74–76Google Scholar
  117. Xu S, Zhou J, Zeng Q et al (2005) Dolomite reservoir characteristics of the second member of the Permian Qixia Formation in the north section of Longmenshan. Nat Gas Ind S1:59–61Google Scholar
  118. Xu W, Chen D, Zhao W et al (2011) Karst development law of Ordovician carbonate reservoir in Tahe oilfield. Marine Origin Pet Geol 16(02):34–41Google Scholar
  119. Xu Z, Han S, Wang Q (2015) Pyrite characteristics and oil-gas significance of Doushantuo shale reservoir in the middle Yangtze area. Lithologic Reservoirs 27(02):31–37Google Scholar
  120. Yan C, Huang Y, Ge C et al (2009) Shale gas is a potential unconventional natural gas resource. Nat Gas Ind 29(05):1–6Google Scholar
  121. Yang H (2015) Exploration knowledge and direction of dolomite in the lower Paleozoic of Tarim Basin. Natural Gas Geosci 26(07):1213–1223Google Scholar
  122. Yang H, Liu S, Li Y et al (2000) Characteristics of carbonate reservoirs of middle upper Ordovician in Tazhong area. Marine Pet Geol (z1):73–83Google Scholar
  123. Yang P, Xie Y, Wang C et al (2012) Source rock characteristics and petroleum geological significance of the upper Ordovician Wufeng Formation on the west side of Xuefeng. Nat Gas Ind 32(12):11–16Google Scholar
  124. Yang H, Liu X, Zhang D (2013) Main controlling factors and exploration progress of Ordovician Marine Carbonate Gas Reservoir in Ordos Basin. Nat Gas Ind 33(05):1–12Google Scholar
  125. Yang G, Wang H, Shen H et al (2015) Characteristics and exploration prospects of Middle Permian reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin. Nat Gas Ind 35(7):10–16Google Scholar
  126. Ye C, Qin Q, Long S et al (2009) Characteristics and evaluation of marine carbonate reservoirs in Feixianguan Formation, Western Sichuan. Lithol Reser 21(01):61–65Google Scholar
  127. Ye N, Li Y, Gong Y et al (2014) Sequence stratigraphy of cambrian in Tarim basin. Xinjiang Geol 4:487–493Google Scholar
  128. Yu X, Li S, Yang Z (2015) Discussion on deposition-diagenesis genetic mechanism and hot issues of tight sandstone gas reservoir. Lithologic Reservoirs 27(1):1–13Google Scholar
  129. Yun L, Zhai X (2008) Cambrian reservoir and accumulation characteristics of well Tashen 1 in Tarim Basin. Oil Gas Geol 29(06):726–732Google Scholar
  130. Zhai G, He W (2005) Oil and gas exploration direction in China from the perspective of regional tectonic background. China Pet Explor 02:1–8Google Scholar
  131. Zhang S (2009) Petroleum geology and prospect evaluation of pre-Paleogene in Bohai Bay Basin. Geological Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhang J, Jiang S, Tang X et al (2009) Shale gas enrichment types and resource characteristics in China. Nat Gas Ind 29(12):109–114Google Scholar
  133. Zhang G, Ma F, Liang Y et al (2015) Progress in deep oil and gas exploration and theoretical technology in the world. Acta Petrolei Sinica 36(09):1156–1166Google Scholar
  134. Zhang K, Bai G, Cao B et al (2016) Development characteristics of deep clastic reservoirs. J Eng Sci 38(01):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhang X, Li X, Li Z et al (2017) The residual structure of dolomite and the significance of its sedimentary faciesTaking the middle lower Ordovician in Tazhong area as an example. Oil Gas Geol 38(04):722–728Google Scholar
  136. Zhao J, Chen H, Shi Z (2001) Methods of Paleogeomorphology restoration and its significance: a case study of Jurassic pre sedimentary paleogeomorphology in Ordos Basin. J Chengdu Inst Technol 03:260–266Google Scholar
  137. Zhao W, Zhang G, He H et al (2002) Marine petroleum geology and superimposed petroliferous basins in China. Geological Press, Beijing, pp 62–214Google Scholar
  138. Zhao J, Chen H, Xiang F (2003) The application of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy in the restoration of paleogeomorphology before sedimentation. J Chengdu Univ Sci Technol (Science & Technology Edition) 01:76–81Google Scholar
  139. Zhao W, Zhao X, Jiang Z et al (2006) Deep structure and oil and gas prospect prediction of Qiangtang Basin in Tibet. Geological Press, Beijing, pp 1–108Google Scholar
  140. Zhao Z, Du J et al (2012) Tight oil and gas. Petroleum Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  141. Zhao W, Shen A, Anping H et al (2015) Geological background of marine carbonate reservoir development in Tarim, Sichuan and Ordos basins. Acta Petrologica Sinica 31(11):3495–3508Google Scholar
  142. Zheng JF, Shen AJ, Liu YF et al (2013) Characteristics and main controlling factors of dolomite reservoirs related to evaporite in the Cambrian of Tarim Basin. Acta Sedimentol Sin 31(01):89–98Google Scholar
  143. Zhong D, Zhu X, Wang H (2008) Analysis of the characteristics and formation mechanism of high quality deep clastic rock reservoirs in China. Sci China (Ser D: Geosci) (S1):11–18Google Scholar
  144. Zhou X, Wang R, Yi Z et al (2011) Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy and sedimentary model of Zhujiang Formation in Dongsha uplift of Zhujiang River Mouth Basin. Acta Petrolei Sinica 33(09):1–6Google Scholar
  145. Zhou J, Yao G, Yang G et al (2016) Lithofacies paleogeography and favorable exploration area of natural gas from Qixia Formation to Maokou Formation in Sichuan Basin. Nat Gas Ind 36(04):8–15Google Scholar
  146. Zhu M (2010) Origin of animals and Cambrian explosion: fossil evidence from China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 49(03):269–287Google Scholar
  147. Zhu G, Zhang S, Liang Y et al (2006) TSR’s dissolution and transformation of deep carbonate reservoir: an important way to form high quality carbonate reservoir in Sichuan Basin. Acta Petrologica Sinica 08:2182–2194Google Scholar
  148. Zhu R, Guo H, Gao Z et al (2008) Discussion on the relationship between diagenetic fluid evolution, reservoir property and oil-gas migration of clastic reservoir—Taking the upper Ordovician Carboniferous marine clastic reservoir in Manxi area of Tarim Basin as an example. Acta Geol Sin 06:835–843Google Scholar
  149. Zhu R, Zou C, Zhang N et al (2009) Diagenetic fluid evolution and tight genetic mechanism of tight sandstone gas reservoir: taking Xujiahe formation of Upper Triassic in Sichuan Basin as an example. Chinese Sci (D Series: Geoscience) 39(03):327–339Google Scholar
  150. Zou C, Dong D, Wang S et al (2010) Shale gas formation mechanism, geological characteristics and resource potential in China. Pet Explor Dev 37(06):641–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Zou C, Dong D, Yang H et al (2011) Shale gas formation conditions and exploration practice in China. Nat Gas Ind 31(12):26–39Google Scholar
  152. Zuxin X, Guo S (2015) Pore structure characteristics of Sinian Doushantuo shale reservoir in the middle Yangtze area. Geoscience 29(01):206–212Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Publishing House and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SinopecBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations