• J. Nienke AltinkEmail author
  • Jari Dahmen
  • Gwendolyn Vuurberg
  • Gino M. M. J. Kerkhoffs


A number of outcome measures are available to assess the impact of sports injuries of the foot and ankle. The following key items are essential when selecting the best available outcome measures:
  • History taking remains the most important tool and is essential to assess the symptoms, concerns, medical-, social-, and psychological history and to individualize treatment.

  • Validity, reliability, and repeatability are important psychometric properties to assess whether an outcome measure is suitable for its intended purpose.

  • Different tools are available to objectify findings during physical examination (goniometers, dynamometers).

  • To obtain an evaluation of the patient which is as complete as possible, it is recommended to combine a generic health measure, a foot- or ankle-specific health measure, and, if available, a disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure (PROM).

  • Monitoring of complications and recurrence rate of the particular injury is essential to adequately assess safety and effectiveness of any surgical technique.


Outcome assessment Treatment outcome Psychometric properties Patient-reported outcome measures Complications and recurrence 


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Nienke Altink
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Jari Dahmen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gwendolyn Vuurberg
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gino M. M. J. Kerkhoffs
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryAmsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement SciencesAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Academic Center for Evidence Based Sports Medicine (ACES)AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Amsterdam Collaboration on Health and Safety in Sports (ACHSS), AMC/VUmc IOC Research CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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