Tissue Engineering for the Cartilage Repair of the Ankle
Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) are common cause of postresidual pain after ankle injury. The “gold standard” has not been established over the years, which is why a variety of different methods of cartilage lesion treatment have been used. Microfracture and bone marrow stimulation, although offered fast return to sports, had worse results in a long-term follow-up. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) was a next step in treatment of OLTs. However, it is a complex and invasive two-step surgery that requires arthrotomy and, in most of the cases, a medial malleolus osteotomy. Furthermore, the cost of the full procedure is high. The evolution of tissue engineering and scaffold development provided an opportunity to change the surgery technique. A single-stage procedure with the use of hyaluronic acid-based scaffold combined with bone marrow-derived cells has become an alternative to the aforementioned techniques offering a good clinical outcome and satisfactory long-term results.
KeywordsOsteochondral lesions of the talus Scaffold Bone marrow Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) Hyaluronan-based scaffold
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