Parameters to Establish the Existence and Extent of Positive Obligations
As shown in the preceding chapter, thematic conventions such as on gender-based or racial discrimination explicitly stipulate positive obligations on specific groups or situations. As to their thematic scope of application, these conventions often indicate when these obligations apply. However, some of them, such as CEDAW, do not necessarily specify the extent of positive obligations. In turn, others, such as the Istanbul Convention, additionally spell out to what extent state parties have positive obligations. In contrast, while being interpreted as to establishing positive obligations, general human rights treaties such as ECHR, ACHR and ICCPR neither indicate the conditions for the application of positive obligations, nor do they name their extent and limits.