Advertisement

Gruppenleistungen im Sport

  • Jeannine OhlertEmail author
  • Christian Zepp
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Im Vergleich zur Leistung von Einzelpersonen erbringen Gruppen und Teams in manchen Situationen überraschend gute, in anderen Situationen hingegen überraschend schlechte Leistungen. In diesem Kapitel soll daher geklärt werden, unter welchen Umständen das Eine oder das Andere zutrifft und welche Phänomene und Prozesse hierbei eine Rolle spielen. Hierzu werden zunächst wichtige Definitionen und Theorien zum Bereich Gruppe und Teams vorgestellt. Anschließend liegt der Fokus auf dem Phänomen des sozialen Faulenzens, das zu Leistungsverlusten in Gruppen führt. Im Gegensatz dazu stehen Leistungsgewinne in Gruppen im darauffolgenden Abschnitt im Vordergrund, gefolgt von theoretischen Erklärungen zu beiden Aspekten. Dann werden gruppenbezogene Phänomene vorgestellt, die eine wissenschaftlich nachgewiesene Auswirkung auf die Gruppenleistung haben. Zuletzt wird dargestellt, mit welchen validierten Instrumenten wichtige gruppenbezogene Konstrukte gemessen werden können.

Literatur

  1. Ames, C. A. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G. C. Roberts (Hrsg.), Motivation in sport and exercise (S. 161–176). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  2. Anshel, M. H. (1995). Examining social loafing among elite female rowers as a function of task duration and mood. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18(1), 39–49.Google Scholar
  3. Apitzsch, E. (2006). Collective collapse in team sports: A theoretical approach. In F. Boen, B. de Cuyper, & J. Opdenacker (Hrsg.), Current research topics in exercise and sport psychology in Europe (S. 35–46). Leuven: LannooCampus Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Appleton, P. R., Ntoumanis, N., Quested, E., Viladrich, C., & Duda, J. L. (2016). Initial validation of the coach-created empowering and disempowering motivational climate questionnaire (EDMCQ-C). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 53–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.05.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Backer, M., Boen, F., de Cuyper, B., Høigaard, R., & Vande Broek, G. (2015). A team fares well with a fair coach: Predictors of social loafing in interactive female sport teams. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 25, 897–912.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balaguer, I., Duda, J. L., Atienza, F. L., & Mayo, C. (2002). Situational and dispositional goals as predictors of perceptions on individual and team improvement, satisfaction and coach ratings among elite female handball teams. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 3, 293–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. The exercise of control (2. Aufl.). New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F., Ainsworth, S. E., & Vohs, K. D. (2016). Are groups more or less than the sum of their members? the moderating role of individual identification. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, e137.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x15000618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beauchamp, M. R., Bray, S. R., Eys, M. A., & Carron, A. V. (2002). Role ambiguity, role efficacy, and role performance: Multidimensional and mediational relationships within interdependent sport teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6(3), 229–242.  https://doi.org/10.1037//1089-2699.6.3.229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beauchamp, M. R., & Eys, M. A. (2007). Group integration interventions in exercise: Theory, practice and future directions. In M. R. Beauchamp & M. A. Eys (Hrsg.), Group dynamics in exercise and sport psychology. Contemporary themes. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bies, R., & Tripp, T. M. (1996). Beyond trust: „Getting even“ and the need for revenge. In R. D. Kramer & T. R. Tyler (Hrsg.), Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research (S. 246–260). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boss, M., & Kleinert, J. (2015). Explaining social contagion in sport applying Heider’s balance theory: First experimental results. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16(3), 160–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.10.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brand, R. (2010). Sportpsychologie. Lehrbuch (1. Aufl.). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Breuer, C., Hüffmeier, J., & Hertel, G. (2016). Does trust matter more in virtual teams? A meta-analysis of trust and team effectiveness considering virtuality and documentation as moderators. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(8), 1151–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burke, S. M., Carron, A. V., & Shapcott, K. M. (2008). Cohesion in exercise groups: An overview. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(2), 107–123.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17509840802227065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carron, A. V., Colman, M. M., Wheeler, J., & Stevens, D. (2002). Cohesion and performance in sport. A meta analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 168–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carron, A. V., & Eys, M. A. (2012). Group dynamics in sport (4. Aufl.). Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology.Google Scholar
  18. Carron, A. V., & Hausenblas, H. A. (Hrsg.). (1998). Group dynamics in sport (2. Aufl.). Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology.Google Scholar
  19. Carron, A. V., Widmeyer, W. N., & Brawley, L. R. (1985). The development of an instrument to assess cohesion in sport teams: The Group Environment Questionnaire. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 244–266.  https://doi.org/10.1177/104649640003100105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castaño, N., Watts, T., & Tekleab, A. G. (2013). A reexamination of the cohesion – performance relationship meta-analyses. A comprehensive approach. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17(4), 207–231.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034142.
  21. Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909–927.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.909.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. de Cremer, D., van Dijke, M., & Mayer, D. M. (2010). Cooperating when “you” and “I” are treated fairly: The moderating role of leader prototypicality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 1121–1133.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cunningham, I., & Eys, M. A. (2007). Role ambiguity and intra-team communication in interdependent sport teams. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(10), 2220–2237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits. Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1104_01.
  25. DeLamater, J. (1974). A definition of „group“. Small Group Research, 5(1), 30–44.  https://doi.org/10.1177/104649647400500103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dreiskämper, D., Pöppel, K., & Strauß, B. (2016). Vertrauen ist gut … Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie, 23(1), 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1026/1612-5010/a000156.
  27. Drescher, S., Burlingame, G. M., & Fuhriman, A. (2012). Cohesion: An Odyssey in empirical understanding. Small Group Research, 43(6), 662–689.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496412468073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duda, J. L. (2013). The conceptual and empirical foundations of Empowering Coaching™: Setting the stage for the PAPA project. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 311–318.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2013.839414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duda, J. L., & Appleton, P. R. (2016). Empowering and disempowering coaching climates: Conceptualization, measurement issues, and intervention implications. In M. Raab, P. Wylleman, R. Seiler, A.-M. Elbe, & A. Hatzigeorgiadis (Hrsg.), Sport and exercise psychology research (S. 373–388). London: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duda, J. L., & Balaguer, I. (2007). Coach-created motivational climate. In S. Jowett & D. Lavallee (Hrsg.), Social psychology in sport (S. 117–130). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  31. Estabrooks, P. A., & Carron, A. V. (2000). The physical activity group environment questionnaire. An instrument for the assessment of cohesion in exercise classes. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 230–243.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.4.3.230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Evans, M. B., Eys, M. A., & Bruner, M. W. (2012). Seeing the “we” in “me” sports: The need to consider individual sport team environments. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 53(4), 301–308.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Everett, J. J., Smith, R. E., & Williams, K. D. (1992). Effects of team cohesion and identifiability on social loafing in relay swimming performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23(4), 311–324.Google Scholar
  34. Eys, M. A., Carron, A. V., Beauchamp, M. R., & Bray, S. R. (2005). Athletes’ perceptions of the sources of role ambiguity. Small Group Research, 36(4), 383–403.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496404268533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eys, M. A., Loughead, T. M., Bray, S. R., & Carron, A. V. (2009). Development of a cohesion questionnaire for youth: The youth sport environment questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 390–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eys, M. A., Ohlert, J., Evans, B., Wolf, S. A., Martin, L., VanBussel, M., et al. (2015). Cohesion and performance for female and male sport teams. The Sport Psychologist, 29(2), 97–109.  https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2014-0027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Feltz, D. L., Forlenza, S. T., Winn, B., & Kerr, N. L. (2014). Cyber buddy is better than no buddy: A test of the Köhler motivation effect in exergames. Games for Health, 3(2), 98–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feltz, D. L., Kerr, N. L., & Irwin, B. C. (2011). Buddy up: The Köhler effect applied to health games. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 506–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Feltz, D. L., & Lirgg, C. D. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs of athletes, teams, and coaches. In R. N. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. M. Janelle (Hrsg.), Handbook of sport psychology (2. Aufl., S. 340–361). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Feuchter, A., & Funke, J. (2004). Positive Effekte sozialen Faulenzens beim Lösen komplexer Probleme. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 56(2), 304–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fielding, K. S., & Hogg, M. A. (2000). Working hard to achieve self-defining group goals: A social identity analysis. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 31(4), 191–203.  https://doi.org/10.1024//0044-3514.31.4.191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Forsyth, D. R. (2014). Group dynamics (6. Aufl.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  43. Fransen, K., Coffee, P., Vanbeselaere, N., Slater, M., de Cuyper, B., & Boen, F. (2014a). The impact of athlete leaders on team members’ team outcome confidence: A test of mediation by team identification and collective efficacy. The Sport Psychologist, 28(4), 347–360.  https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2013-0141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fransen, K., Vanbeselaere, N., Cuyper, B. de, Vande Broek, G., & Boen, F. (2014). The myth of the team captain as principal leader: Extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams. Journal of Sports Sciences, (online first).  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.891291.
  45. Fransen, K., Vanbeselaere, N., Exadaktylos, V., Vande Broek, G., de Cuyper, B., Berckmans, D., et al. (2012). “Yes, we can!”: Perceptions of collective efficacy sources in volleyball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 641–649.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.653579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Franz, T. M. (2012). Group dynamics and team interventions. Understanding and improving team performance. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. Fraser, S. N., & Spink, K. S. (2002). Examining the role of social support and group cohesion in exercise compliance. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 25(3), 233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Glenn, S. D., & Horn, T. S. (1993). Psychological and personal predictors of leadership behavior in female soccer athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 5(1), 17–34.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209308411302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Greenlees, I. A., Graydon, J. K., & Maynard, I. (1999). The impact of collective efficacy beliefs on effort and persistenc in a group task. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A., & Beubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 819–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hackman, J. R. (2002). Leading teams: Setting the stage for greater performances. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  52. Hardy, C. J. (1990). Social loafing. Motivational losses in collective performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 21, 305–327.Google Scholar
  53. Hardy, C. J., & Latané, B. (1988). Social loafing in cheerleaders: Effect of team membership and competition. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harkins, S. (1987). Social loafing and social facilitation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(87)90022-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harkins, S., & Szymanski, K. (1989). Social loafing and group evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 934–941.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.6.934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hart, J. W., Bridgett, D. J., & Karau, S. J. (2001). Coworker ability and effort as determinants of individual effort on a collective task. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5(3), 181–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hart, J. W., Karau, S. J., Stasson, M. F., & Kerr, N. A. (2004). Achievement motivation, expected coworker performance, and collective task motivation: Working hard or hardly working? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(5), 984–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heckhausen, H. (1977). Achievement motivation and its constructs. A cognitive model. Motivation and Emotion, 1, 283–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hertel, G. (2002). Management virtueller Teams auf der Basis sozialpsychologischer Theorien. Das VIST-Modell. In F. H. Witte (Hrsg.), Sozialpsychologie wirtschaftlicher Prozesse (S. 172–202). Lengerich: Pabst.Google Scholar
  60. Heuzé, J.-P., & Brunel, P. C. (2003). Social loafing in a competitive context. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(3), 246–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hodge, K., Henry, G., & Smith, W. (2014). a case study of excellence in elite sport. Motivational climate in a world champion team. The Sport Psychologist, 28(1), 60–74.  https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2013-0037.
  62. Høigaard, R., Fuglestad, S., Peters, D. M., de Cuyper, B., de Backer, M., & Boen, F. (2010). Role satisfaction mediates the relation between role ambiguity and social loafing among elite women handball players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(4), 408–419.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2010.495326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Høigaard, R., & Ingvaldsen, R. P. (2006). Social loafing in interactive groups. The effects of identifiability on effort and individual performance in floorball. Athletic Insight, 8(2), 52–63.Google Scholar
  64. Huddleston, S., Doody, S. G., & Ruder, M. K. (1985). The effect of prior knowledge of the social loafing phenomenon on performance in a group. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 16, 176–182.Google Scholar
  65. Hüffmeier, J., Dietrich, H., & Hertel, G. (2013a). Effort intentions in teams: Effects of task type and teammate performance. Small Group Research, 44(1), 62–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hüffmeier, J., & Hertel, G. (2011). When the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Group motivation gains in the wild. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(2), 455–459.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.12.004.
  67. Hüffmeier, J., Kanthak, J., & Hertel, G. (2013b). Specificity of partner feedback as moderator of group motivation gains in Olympic swimmers. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 16(4), 516–525.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430212460894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hüffmeier, J., Krumm, S., Kanthak, J., & Hertel, G. (2012). Don’t let the group down: Facets of instrumentality moderate the motivating effects of groups in a field experiment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 533–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ingham, A. G., Levinger, G., Graves, J., & Peckham, V. (1974). The Ringelmann effect. Studies of group size and group performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 371–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Irwin, B. C., Scorniaenchi, J., Kerr, N. L., Eisenmann, J. C., & Feltz, D. L. (2012). Aerobic exercise is promoted when individual performance affects the group: A test of the Kohler motivation gain effect. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 44(2), 151–159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-012-9367-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jackson, J. M., & Williams, K. D. (1985). Social loafing on difficult tasks. Working collectively can improve performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 937–942.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.4.937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (2009). Joining together: Group theory and group skills (10. Aufl.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
  73. Karau, S. J., Markus, M. J., & Williams, K. D. (2000). On the elusive search for motivation gains in groups. Insights from the collective effort model. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 31(4), 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karau, S. J., & Williams, K. D. (1993). Social loafing. A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(4), 681–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Karau, S. J., & Williams, K. D. (1997). The effects of group cohesiveness on social loafing and social compensation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(2), 156–168.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.1.2.156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kerr, N. L., & Bruun, S. (1983). The dispensability of member effort and group motivation losses: Free rider effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 78–94.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kerr, N. L., Forlenza, S. T., Irwin, B. C., & Feltz, D. L. (2013). ‚… been down so long …‘: Perpetual vs. intermittent inferiority and the Köhler group motivation gain in exercise groups. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17(2), 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kleinert, J., Ohlert, J., Carron, A. V., Eys, M. A., Feltz, D. L., Harwood, C., et al. (2012). Group dynamics in sport. An overview and recommendations on diagnostic and intervention. The Sport Psychologist, 26, 412–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kleinknecht, C., Kleinert, J., & Ohlert, J. (2014). Erfassung von „Kohäsion im Team von Freizeit- und Gesundheitssportgruppen“ (KIT-FG). Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 22(2), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kleinknecht, C., Ohlert, J., & Kleinert, J. (2010). Die ewigen Banksitzer - Kohäsionswahrnehmung von Schülern als Motivationshilfe im Schulsport? In G. Amesberger, T. Finkenzeller, & S. Würth (Hrsg.), Psychophysiologie im Sport - zwischen Experiment und Handlungsoptimierung (S. 109). Hamburg: Feldhaus Verlag, Edition Czwalina.Google Scholar
  81. Köhler, O. (1926). Kraftleistungen bei Einzel- und Gruppenarbeit. Industrielle Psychotechnik, 3, 274–282.Google Scholar
  82. Köhler, O. (1927). Über den Gruppenwirkungsgrad der menschlichen Körperarbeit und die Bedingung optimaler Kollektivkraftreaktion. Industrielle Psychotechnik, 4, 209–226.Google Scholar
  83. Kramer, R. M. (1998). Paranoid cognition in social systems: Thinking and acting in the shadow of doubt. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 251–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kravitz, D. A., & Martin, B. (1986). Ringelmann rediscovered: The original article. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(5), 936–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Latané, B. (1981). The psychology of social impact. American Psychologist, 36, 343–356.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.36.4.343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Latané, B., Williams, K. D., & Harkins, S. (1979). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(6), 822–832.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.6.822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lau, A., & Stoll, O. (2007). Gruppenkohäsion im Sport. Psychologie in Österreich, 27(2), 155–163.Google Scholar
  88. LaVoi, N. M. (2007). Interpersonal communication and conflict in the coach-athlete relationship. In S. Jowett & D. Lavallee (Hrsg.), Social psychology in sport (S. 29–40). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  89. Leineweber, H., & Ohlert, J. (2010). Motivationales Klima bei Jugendlichen: Übersetzung und Validierung des Fragebogens zum peerinduzierten motivationalen Klima (FPMK). In G. Amesberger, T. Finkenzeller, & S. Würth (Hrsg.), Psychophysiologie im Sport – zwischen Experiment und Handlungsoptimierung (S. 126). Hamburg: Feldhaus Verlag, Edition Czwalina.Google Scholar
  90. Linz, L. (2006). Erfolgreiches Teamcoaching. Ein sportpsychologisches Handbuch für Trainer (2. Aufl.). Aachen: Meyer & Meyer.Google Scholar
  91. Loughead, T. M., Hardy, J., & Eys, M. A. (2006). The nature of athlete leadership. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 29, 142–158.Google Scholar
  92. Max, E. J., Samendinger, S., Winn, B., Kerr, N. L., Pfeiffer, K. A., & Feltz, D. L. (2016). Enhancing aerobic exercise with a novel virtual exercise buddy based on the Kohler Effect. Games for Health Journal, 5(4), 252–257.  https://doi.org/10.1089/g4h.2016.0018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Miles, J. A., & Greenberg, J. (1993). Using punishment threats to attenuate social loafing effects among swimmers. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 56(2), 246–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Moede, W. (1927). Die Richtlinien der Leistungs-Psychologie. Industrielle Psychotechnik, 4, 193–207.Google Scholar
  96. Moll, T., Jordet, G., & Pepping, G.-J. (2010). Emotional contagion in soccer penalty shootouts: Celebration of individual success is associated with ultimate team success. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(9), 983–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1982). Socialization in small groups: Temporal changes in individual-group relations. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 15, 137–192.Google Scholar
  98. Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (2012). A history of small group research. In A. W. Kruglanski & W. Stroebe (Hrsg.), Handbook of the history of social psychology (S. 383–405). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  99. Morgan, K., Sproule, J., Weigand, D., & Carpenter, P. J. (2005). A computer-based observational assessment of the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate in Physical Education. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 83–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Murrell, A. J., & Gaertner, S. L. (1992). Cohesion and sport team effectiveness. The benefit of a common group identity. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 16(1), 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1177/019372359201600101.
  101. Newton, M. L., Duda, J. L., & Yin, Z. (2000). Examination of the psychometric properties of the perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire-2 in a sample of female athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(4), 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nilsen, T., Haugen, T., Reinboth, M., Peters, D. M., & Høigaard, R. (2014). Explicit prior knowledge of social loafing does not reduce social loafing in subsequent team cycle trial performance. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 20(2), 17–25.Google Scholar
  103. Ntoumanis, N., & Vazou, S. (2005). Peer motivational climate in youth sport. Measurement development and validation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27(4), 432–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ohlert, J. (2009). Teamleistung. Social Loafing in der Vorbereitung auf eine Gruppenaufgabe. Hamburg: Kovač.Google Scholar
  105. Ohlert, J. (2012). “Kohäsionsfragebogen für Individual- und Teamsport – Leistungssport“ (KIT-L) – A German-language instrument for measuring group cohesion in individual and team sports. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 39–51.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2012.645129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ohlert, J. (2018). Erfassung des Empowerment Klimas in Sportgruppen – erste Validierung des Fragebogens zum Trainer*innen-induzierten Empowerment Klima (FTEK). In U. Borges, L. Bröker, S. Hoffmann, T. Hosang, S. Laborde, R. Liepelt et al. (Hrsg.), Abstractband der 50. Jahrestagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Sportpsychologie (S. 118). Köln: Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln.Google Scholar
  107. Ohlert, J., & Kleinert, J. (2013). Social loafing during preparation for performance situations. The preloafing effect. Social Psychology, 44, 231–237.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ohlert, J., & Kleinert, J. (2014). Sozialer Kontext und antizipierter Alkoholkonsum bei Leistungssportlern. SUCHT, 60(2), 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ohlert, J., Kleinknecht, C. & Kleinert, J. (2011). Ein Fragebogen zur Gruppenkohäsion im Jugendleistungssport: Validierung des KIT-J. In J. Ohlert & J. Kleinert (Hrsg.), Sport vereinT. Psychologie und Bewegung in Gesellschaft (S. 101). Hamburg: Feldhaus.Google Scholar
  110. Ohlert, J., Kleinknecht, C., & Kleinert, J. (2015). Group cohesion reworded – Measuring group cohesion feelings in sport. Sportwissenschaft, 45(3), 116–126.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12662-015-0364-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ohlert, J., & Zepp, C. (2016). Theory based team diagnostics and interventions. In M. Raab, P. Wylleman, R. Seiler, A.-M. Elbe, & A. Hatzigeorgiadis (Hrsg.), Sport and exercise psychology research (S. 347–370). London: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Petitta, L., Jiang, L., & Palange, M. (2015). The differential mediating roles of task, relations, and emotions collective efficacy on the link between dominance and performance. A multilevel study in sport teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19 (3), 181–199.  https://doi.org/10.1037/gdn0000031.
  113. Postmes, T., Haslam, S. A., & Jans, L. (2013). A single-item measure of social identification: Reliability, validity, and utility. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(4), 597–617.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Prapavessis, H., & Carron, A. V. (1997). Sacrifice, cohesion, and conformity to norms in sport teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(3), 231–240.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.1.3.231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rees, T., Alexander Haslam, S., Coffee, P., & Lavallee, D. (2015). A social identity approach to sport psychology: Principles, practice, and prospects. Sports Medicine, 45(8), 1083–1096.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0345-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ringelmann, M. (1913). Recherches sur les moteurs animes: Travail de l’homme. Annales de l’Institut National Agronomique, 12(1), 1–40.Google Scholar
  117. Short, S. E., Sullivan, P. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2005). Development and preliminary validation of the collective efficacy questionnaire for sports. Measurement in Physical Education and Excercise Science, 9(3), 181–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silver, W. S., & Bufanio, K. M. (1996). The impact of group efficacy and group goals on group task performance. Small Group Research, 27, 347–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith, N., Tessier, D., Tzioumakis, Y., Quested, E., Appleton, P., Sarrazin, P., et al. (2015). Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37(1), 4–22.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2014-0059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Steiner, I. D. (1972). Group processes and productivity. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  121. Stroebe, W., Diehl, M., & Abakoumkin, G. (1996). Social compensation and the Koehler effect. Toward a theoretical explanation of motivation gains in group productivity. In E. H. Witte & J. H. Davis (Hrsg.), Understanding group behavior. Small group processes and interpersonal relations (S. 37–65). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  122. Swaab, R. I., Schaerer, M., Anicich, E. M., Ronay, R., & Galinsky, A. D. (2014). The too-much-talent effect. Team interdependence determines when more talent is too much or not enough. Psychological Science, 25(8), 1581–1591.Google Scholar
  123. Swain, A. (1996). Social loafing and identifiability: The mediating role of achievement goal orientations. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67(3), 337–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tajfel, H. (1978). Social categorization, social identity and social comparison. In H. Tajfel (Hrsg.), Differentiation between social groups (S. 61–76). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  125. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Hrsg.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (2. Aufl., S. 33–47). Monterey: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  126. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Hrsg.), Psychology of intergroup relations (2. Aufl., S. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  127. Thompson, B., & Thornton, B. (2007). Exploring mental-state reasoning as a social-cognitive mechanism for social loafing in children. The Journal of Social Psychology, 147(2), 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Todd, A. R., Seok, D.-H., Kerr, N. L., & Messé, L. A. (2006). Social compensation: Fact or social-comparison artifact? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 9(3), 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental sequences in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 348–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tuckman, B. W., & Jensen, M. A. C. (1977). Stages of small-group development revisited. Group and Organization Management, 2(4), 419–427.  https://doi.org/10.1177/105960117700200404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (Hrsg.). (1987). Rediscovering the social group. A self-categorization theory. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  132. Van Dick, R., Stellmacher, J., Wagner, U., Lemmer, G., & Tissington, P. A. (2009). Group membership salience and task performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(7), 609–626.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940910989011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Van Dick, R., & West, M. A. (2013). Teamwork, Teamdiagnose, Teamentwicklung (2. Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  134. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  135. Weber, B., & Hertel, G. (2007). Motivation gains of inferior group members: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(6), 973–993.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.93.6.973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wergin, V. V., Zimanyi, Z., Mesagno, C., & Beckmann, J. (2018). When suddenly nothing works anymore within a team – Causes of collective sport team collapse. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2115.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02115.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Whipple, R. (2009). Reinforcing candor: It builds trust and transparency. Leadership Excellence, 26(6), 17.Google Scholar
  138. Wilhelm, A. (2001). Im Team zum Erfolg. Ein sozial-motivationales Verhaltensmodell zur Mannschaftsleistung. Lengerich: Pabst.Google Scholar
  139. Williams, K. D., & Karau, S. J. (1991). Social loafing and social compensation. The effects of expectations of co-worker performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(4), 570–581.Google Scholar
  140. Williams, K. D., Nida, S. A., Baca, L. D., & Latané, B. (1989). Social loafing and swimming. Effects of identifiability on individual and relay performance of intercollegiate swimmers. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 10, 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Woolfolk, A. (2014). Pädagogische Psychologie (12 aktualisierte Aufl.). Hallbergmoos: Pearson Studium.Google Scholar
  142. Yukelson, D. P. (1993). Communicating effectively. In J. Williams (Hrsg.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (2. Aufl., S. 122–136). Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing.Google Scholar
  143. Zepp, C., Boss, M., Wolf, S. A., & Kleinert, J. (2011). KoWiS – Erfassung kollektiver Wirksamkeit im Sport. In J. Ohlert & J. Kleinert (Hrsg.), Sport vereinT. Psychologie und Bewegung in Gesellschaft (S. 158). Hamburg: Feldhaus.Google Scholar
  144. Zepp, C., & Kleinert, J. (2015). Symmetric and complementary fit based on prototypical attributes of soccer teams. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 18(4), 557–572.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430214556701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zepp, C., Kleinert, J., & Liebscher, A. (2013). Inhalte und Strukturen prototypischer Merkmale in Fußballmannschaften. Sportwissenschaft, 43(4), 283–290.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12662-013-0305-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zepp, C., Ohlert, J., & Kleinert, J. (2014a). Übersetzung und Validierung der Role Ambiguity Scale (RAS). In R. Frank, I. Nixdorf, F. Ehrlenspiel, A. Geipel, A. Mornell & J. Beckmann (Hrsg.), Performing under pressure (S. 223). Hamburg: Feldhaus.Google Scholar
  147. Zepp, C., Ohlert, J., & Kleinert, J. (2014b). „Wir brauchen gar keinen Kapitän…!“ Entwicklung eines sportartübergreifenden Assessments zur sportpsychologischen Diagnostik von Sportmannschaften. Leistungssport, 44(2), 11–16.Google Scholar
  148. Zhang, Z., Wladman, D. A., & Wang, Z. (2012). A multilevel investigation of leader-member exchange, informal leader emergence, and individual and team performance. Personnel Psychology, 65(1), 49–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychologisches Institut, Abteilung Gesundheit und SozialpsychologieDeutsche Sporthochschule KölnKölnDeutschland

Personalised recommendations