Gender Differences in Core Strength and Lower Extremity Function During Static and Dynamic Single-Leg Squat Tests

  • Mary Lloyd IrelandEmail author
  • Lori A. Bolgla
  • Brian Noehren


This chapter discusses the principles of core strength and stability with regard to noncontact ACL injury. The single-leg squat test is described as a useful clinical tool to determine core stability. Associations between core strength, neuromuscular activity, and lower extremity function during this test are detailed. In addition, a newer dynamic single-leg squat test is described. These assessment tools are recommended to determine impairments, prescribe individualized interventions, and assess those athletes who may benefit from an ACL injury prevention training program.


Single-leg squat Core stability ACL injury Neuromuscular function 

Supplementary material

Video 13.1

Performance of the timed single-leg step down with narrated instruction on how the test is performed (MP4 64996 kb)

Video 13.2

Incorrect performance of timed single-leg step down with narrated alignment of hip internal rotation and adduction resulting in knee valgus and rotation and high risk of injury position (MP4 88250 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Lloyd Ireland
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lori A. Bolgla
    • 2
  • Brian Noehren
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, College of MedicineUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Therapy, College of Allied Health SciencesAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Rehabilitation SciencesCollege of Health Sciences University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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