Biceps Disorders: When and How to Operate

  • Sebastian Kwisda
  • Matthias FluryEmail author


Traditionally, the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) and the labrum have been viewed as two separate entities. However, these entities are now considered to be an interdependent complex. The biceps-labral complex (BLC) describes an anatomical and biomechanical complex. The BLC consists of three zones: the inside contains the glenoid labrum and its attachment to the LHBT, the so-called biceps anchor; the junction includes the part of the tendon crossing the articular margin to the bicipital groove and its stabilizing system, the biceps pulley; and the third zone consists of the extra-articular part of the LHBT, from the articular boundary to its musculotendinous transition and the biceps tunnel.

There are a variety of different surgical techniques to treat the pathologies of the BLC. These include SLAP repair, debridement, tenotomy, and tenodesis. The amount of new literature reflects the ongoing pursuit of the optimal surgical solution. This chapter aims to give an overview of the anatomy, common BLC pathologies, and current literature and to describe our evidence-based surgical algorithms.


Biceps tendon Biceps-labral complex SLAP repair Tenotomy Tenodesis 


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© ESSKA 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Schulthess ClinicZurichSwitzerland

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