Advertisement

Experimental Methods of HAS Surface Phonon Spectroscopy

  • Giorgio BenedekEmail author
  • Jan Peter Toennies
Chapter
  • 332 Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 63)

Abstract

Helium Atom Scattering (HAS) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) are the major experimental surface scattering techniques which have provided during the last decades information on the energies and dispersion curves of surface phonons. The projectiles, either a He atom or an electron are inelastically diffracted in a coherent fashion from the phonon wave oscillations at the surface of the target. In this chapter the kinematics, the intensities, the apparatus and the resolution of HAS experiments are discussed in detail, with quantitative comparisons with EELS experiments.

References

  1. 1.
    J.P. Toennies, in Surface Phonons, ed. by F.W. deWette, W. Kress, Springer Series Surface Science, vol. 21 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1991)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Brusdeylins, R.B. Doak, J.P. Toennies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1417 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Ibach, D.L. Mills, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Surface Vibrations (Academic Press, New York, 1982)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Benedek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 234 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Brusdeylins, R.B. Doak, J.P. Toennies, Phys. Rev. B 27, 3662 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Evans, V. Celli, G. Benedek, J.P. Toennies, R.B. Doak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1854 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Glebov, W. Silvestri, J.P. Toennies, G. Benedek, J.G. Skofronick, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17866 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Benedek, R. Gerlach, A. Glebov, G. Lange, W. Silvestri, J.G. Skofronick, J.P. Toennies, Vuoto Sci. Tecn. 25, 26–29 (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.E. Yater, A.D. Kulkarni, F.W. de Wette, J.L. Erskine, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 54(55), 395 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.L. Erskine, E.-J. Jeong, J. Yater, Y. Chen, S.Y. Tong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2649 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Balden, S. Lehwald, H. Ibach, A. Ormeci, D.L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4172 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.B. Doak, Superlattices Microstruct. 7, 201 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.P. Toennies, K. Winkelmann, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 3965 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.E. Grisenti, W. Schöllkopf, J.P. Toennies, G.C. Hegerfeldt, T. Köhler, M. Stoll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2284 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Wang, V.A. Shamamian, B.R. Thomas, J.M. Wilkinson, J. Riley, C.F. Giese, W.R. Gentry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 969 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Brusdeylins, H.-D. Meyer, J.P. Toennies, K. Winkelmann, in Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 51, ed. by J.L. Poetter (AIAA, New York, 1977), p. 1047Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Lilienkamp, J.P. Toennies, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5210 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Hofmann, Dissertation, University of Göttingen, 1995Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.B. Anderson, in Molecular Beams and Low Density Gas Dynamics, ed. by P.P. Wegener (Dekker, New York, 1974) pp. 1–74Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.R. Miller, in Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, vol. 1, ed. by G. Scoles (Oxford, New York, 1988) pp. 14–53Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    L.W. Bruch, W. Schöllkopf, J.P. Toennies, J. Chem Phys. 117, 1544 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.C. Mester, E.S. Meyer, M.W. Reynolds, T.E. Huber, Z. Zhao, B. Freedman, J. Kim, I.F. Silvera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1343 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y.T. Lee, J.D. McDonald, P.R. LeBreton, D.R. Herschbach, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1402–1408 (1969)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.O. Brink, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 857–860 (1966)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Samelin, Diplomarbeit, Max Planck Institut für Strömungsforschung and University of Göttingen, 1993Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Weiss, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 397–401 (1961)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. DeKieviet, D. Dubbers, M. Klein, U. Pieles, C. Schmidt, Rev. Sci Instr. 71, 2015 (2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. R. Alderwick, A. P. Jardine, H. Hedgeland, D. A. MacLaren, W. Allison, J. Ellis, Rev. Sci Instr. 79, 123301 (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. M. Chisnall, Dissertation, University of Cambridge, 2012Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.B. Doak, in Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, vol. 2, Chap. 14, ed. by G. Scoles (Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 384–443Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. David, K. Kern, P. Zeppenfeld, G. Comsa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2771 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. Schief, V. Marsico, K. Kuhnke, K. Kern, Surf. Sci. 364, L631 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.T. Yates Jr., Experimental Innovations in Surface Science (Springer, New York, 1998), p. 4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Gans, S.F. King, P.A. Knipp, D.D. Koleske, S.J. Sibener, Surf. Sci. 264, 81 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Niu, D.D. Koleske, D.J. Gaspar, S.J. Sibener, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9077 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Ekinci, J.P. Toennies, Phys. Rev. B 72, 205430 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. Pedemonte, A. Gussoni, R. Tatarek, G. Bracco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4257 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. Cvetko, A. Lausi, A. Morgante, F. Tommasini, K.C. Prince, M. Sastry, Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 997 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. Miyake, E.S. Gillman, I. Oodake, H. Petek, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4531 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. Pedemonte, R. Tatarek, G. Bracco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4404 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K.M. Martini, W. Franzen, M. El-Batanouny, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1027 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. Schnieder, K. Seekamprahn, F. Liedeker, H. Steuwe, K.H. Welge, Faraday Discuss. 91, 259 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    O. Bünermann, H. Jiang, Y. Dorenkamp, A. Kandratsenka, S.M. Janke, D.J. Auerbach, A.M. Wodtke, Science 350, 1346 (2015)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Scherb, E.M. Hörl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 1511 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    H.D. Meyer, Bericht 137/1972 (Max-Planck-Institut für Strömungsforschung, Göttingen, 1972)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Comsa, R. David, B.J. Schumacher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 789 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. Rotzoll, J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.) 15, 708 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D.J. Auerbach, in Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, vol. 1, Chap. 14, ed. by G. Scoles (Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 369ffGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    W.R. Gentry, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49(5), 595 (1978)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    B. Feuerbacher, R.F. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 526 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    B. Feuerbacher, in Dynamics of Gas-Surface Interactions, ed. by G. Benedek, U. Valbusa (Springer, Heidelberg, 1982), p. 263Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    U. Even, J. Jortner, D. Noy, N. Lavie, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8068 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    U. Even, EPJ Techn. Instrum. 2, 17 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    D. Pentlehner, R. Riechers, B. Dick, A. Slenczka, U. Even, N. Lavie, R. Brown, K. Luria, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043302 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. Libson, M. Riedel, G. Bronshtein, E. Nareviscius, U. Even, M.G. Raizen, New J. Phys. 8, 77 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    W. Christen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 024202 (2013)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    J. Wang, V.A. Shamamian, B.R. Thomas, J.M. Wilkinson, J. Riley, C.F. Giese, W.R. Gentry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 696 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    I. Estermann, R. Frisch, O. Stern, Z. Physik 73, 348 (1932)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    B.N. Brockhouse, A.T. Stewart, Phys. Rev. 100, 756 (1955)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    B.N. Brockhouse, S. Hanteder, H. Stiller, in Interaction of Radiation with Solids, ed. by Strumane et al. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    B. Dorner, Coherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering in Lattice Dynamics (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    B.F. Mason, B.R. Williams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 375 (1972)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    B.F. Mason, B.R. Williams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 897 (1978)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    R.E. Subbarao, D.R. Miller, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 808 (1972)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J.M. Horne, D.R. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 511 (1978)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    B.R. Williams, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3220 (1971)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    B.R. Williams, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1895 (1972)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    B.F. Mason, B.R. Williams, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 2199 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    B.F. Mason, B.R. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1138 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    K. Kuhnke, E. Hahn, R. David, P. Zeppenfeld, K. Kern, Surf. Sci. 272, 118 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    H. Schief, Ph.D. thesis, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1995Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    W. Raith, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 12, 281 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    D.J. Auerbach, For a review on time of flight spectroscopy of atoms and molecules, in Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, vol. I, ed. by G. Scoles (Oxford, New York, 1994) p. 362Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. Braun, P.K. Day, J.P. Toennies, G. Witte, E. Neher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3001 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    K. Kuhnke, K. Kern, R. David, G. Comsa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3458 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    D.M. Smilgies, J.P. Toennies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2185 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    F. Mezei, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 7, 2885 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    F. Mezei, C. Pappas, T. Gutberlet (eds.), Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy, Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, Berlin, 2002)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    M. DeKieviet, D. Dubbers, C. Schmidt, D. Scholz, U. Spinola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1919 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    M. DeKieviet, D. Dubbers, M. Klein, C.H. Schmidt, M. Skrzipczyk, Surf. Sci. 377, 1112 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    P. Fouquet, A.P. Jardine, S. Dworski, G. Alexandrowicz, W. Allison, J. Ellis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053109 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    S. Dvorski, G. Alexandrowicz, P. Fouquet, A.P. Jardine, W. Allison, J. Ellis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1963 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    A.P. Jardine, H. Hedgeland, G. Alexandrowicz, W. Allison, J. Ellis, Prog. Surf. Sci. 84, 232–379 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    P.R. Kole, A.P. Jardine, H. Hedgeland, G. Alexandrowicz, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 22, 304018 (2010)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    G. Alexandrowicz, A.P. Jardine, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 305001 (2007)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A.P. Jardine, S. Dworski, P. Fouquet, G. Alexandrowicz, D.J. Riley, G.Y.H. Lee, J. Ellis, W. Allison, Science 304, 1790 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    D.J. Riley, A.P. Jardine, S. Dworsky, G. Alexandrowicz, J. Ellis, W. Allison, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 104702 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    D.J. Riley, A.P. Jardine, G. Alexandrowicz, H. Hedgeland, J. Ellis, W. Allison, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154712 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    L.D. Thomas, W.P. Kraemer, G.H.F. Diercksen, Chem. Phys. 51, 131 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    J. Ellis, K. Hermann, F. Hoffmann, J.P. Toennies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 886 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. Tamtögl, E. Bahn, J. Zhu, P. Fouquet, J. Ellis, W. Allison, J. Phys. Chem. 119, 25983 (2015)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Tamtögl, D. Campi, M. Bremholm, E.M.J. Hedegaard, B.B. Iversen, M. Bianchi, P. Hofmann, J. Ellis, W. Allison, To be published (2017)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    E.M. McIntosh, P.R. Kole, M. El-Batanouny, D.M. Chisnall, J. Ellis, W. Allison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 086103 (2013)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    A.P. Graham, W. Silvestri, J.P. Toennies, Surface Diffusion: Atomistic and Collective Processes (Plenum Press, New York, 1997), pp. 565–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    M. DeKieviet, D. Dubbers, M. Klein, U. Pieles, C. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2015 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    A.P. Jardine, P. Fouquet, J. Ellis, W. Allison, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3834 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    T. Kravchuk, M. Reznikov, P. Tichonov, N. Avidor, Y. Meir, A. Bekkerman, G. Alexandrowicz, Science 331, 319 (1911)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    P.-A. Turgeon, P. Ayotte, E. Lisitsin, Y. Meir, T. Kravchuk, G. Alexandrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 86, 062710 (2012)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    O. Godsi, G. Corem, Y. Alkoby, J.T, Cantin, R. Krems, M. Somers, J. Meyer, G.-J Kroes, T. Maniv, G. Alexandrowicz, Nature Commun. 8, 15357 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms
  100. 100.
    H. Ibach, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 5, 419 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    H. Ibach, Electron Energy Loss Spectrometers, vol. 63, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, Berlin, 1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    H. Ibach, J. Electr. Spectr. Related Phenom. 64–65, 819 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    H. Ibach, M. Balden, S. Lehwald, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 92, 4771 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    H. Ibach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1416 (1970)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    H. Ibach, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 713 (1971)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    H. Ibach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 253 (1971)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    S. Lehwald, J.W. Szeftel, H. Ibach, T.S. Rahman, D.L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 518 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. Balden, S. Lehwald, E. Preuss, H. Ibach, Surf. Sci. 307–309, 1141 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    SPECS GmbH, Berlin, Germany. http://www.specs.de
  110. 110.
    H. Ibach, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 64/65, 819 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    L. Vattuone, M. Rocca, L. Savio, in Surface Science Techniques, Springer Series in Surface Sciences, vol. 51, ed. by G. Bracco, B. Holst (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013), Chap. 17, p. 499Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    R. Berndt, J.P. Toennies, Ch. Wöll, J. Electron Spectrosc. 44, 183 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    M. Rocca, H. Ibach, S. Lehwald, T.S. Rahman, in Structure and Dynamics of Surfaces I, ed, by W. Schommers, P. von Blanckenhagen (Springer, Berlin, 1987), p. 245Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    B.M. Hall, D.L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 34, 8318 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    V. Bortolani, A. Franchini, G. Santoro, J.P. Toennies, Ch. Wöll, G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 40, 3524 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    D. Eichenauer, U. Harten, J.P. Toennies, V. Celli, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 3693 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    D.M. Smilgjes, J.P. Toennies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 185 (1988)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    R.B. Doak, in Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, vol. 2, ed. by G. Scoles (Oxford University Press, New York, 1992), pp. 384–443Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    U. Harten, J.P. Toennies, Ch. Wöll, Faraday Disc. Chem. Soc. 80, 137 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    R. Vollmer, Dissertation, University of Göttingen, 1991, Max-Planck-Institut für Strömungsforschung, Göttingen, Bericht, 4/1992Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    G. Brusdeylins, R.B. Doak, J.P. Toennies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    E.A. Akhadov, T.W. Trelenberg, S.A. Safron, J.G. Skofronik, D.H. Van Winkle, F.A. Flaherty, W. Theis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113406 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    G. Shirane, S.M. Shapiro, J.M. Tranquada, Neutran scattering with a triple-axis spectrometer: basic techniques (Cambridge University Press 2004)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Allison, R. F. Willis, M. Cardilo, Phys. Rev. B 23, 6824 (1981)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Università di Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-OrganizationGöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Donostia International Physics CenterDonostia/San SebastianSpain

Personalised recommendations