Hydrogen Fuel Cell as Range Extender in Electric Vehicle Powertrains: Fuel Optimization Strategies

Chapter

Abstract

The transformation of mobility is now beginning through the introduction of hydrogen (H2) as an energy carrier, coupled with fuel cell electric vehicles that can utilize H2 without greenhouse gas emissions. A current disadvantage of these vehicles lies in the limited infrastructure in terms of H2 refill or electric recharge stations, which has hindered their widespread applicability. There is a sense of déjà vu in the current development in automobile design between battery electric and fuel cell vehicle. This race is similar to a competition when the internal combustion engine-driven Ford Model T automobile became the dominant transportation platform in displacing battery and steam-driven automobiles in the United States a century ago and opened up a new industry. In this chapter, we propose a change in the architecture of the power plant of the fuel cell and battery electric vehicles. The objective is that these vehicles can be presently used until the development of an electric and/or hydrogen recharge network allows both being useful with the current status. We present a drivetrain set model, which is a combination of a plugged-in battery and a fuel cell that works as a range-extender system. Different strategies are applied in order to determine the working conditions that will lead to better vehicle performance and higher range. The vehicle performance is referred to the capacity of both energy sources, namely, electricity stored in a lithium-ion battery and hydrogen gas in high-pressure storage tanks. –The possibilities presented in the chapter may open the door to strategic advantages and innovation for car designers in the future.

Keywords

Hydrogen Electric vehicle Fuel cell Extended range Simulation Model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions of Javier Arboleda, Senior Service Manager at Hyundai Motor in Spain, and Gema María Rodado Nieto, engineer at National Hydrogen Centre (CNH2) in Spain. We wish to thank the editors for allowing us to extend our previously published review [Álvarez, R., Beltrán, F., Villar, in the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016] with new data from 2017, based on our research and other cited works in the field.

References

  1. 1.
    J.D.K. Bishop, N. Molden, A.M. Boies, Real-world environmental impacts from modern passenger vehicles operating in urban settings. Int. J. Transp. Dev. Integr. 1(2), 203–211 (2017)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.E. Kakosimos, O. Hertel, M. Ketzel, R. Berkowicz, Operational street pollution model (OSPM)–a review of performed application and validation studies, and future prospects. Environ. Chem. 7(6), 485–503 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Álvarez, A. López, N. De la Torre, Evaluating the effect of a driver’s behaviour on the range of a battery electric vehicle. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D: J. Automob. Eng. 229(10), 1379–1391 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Graham-Rowe, B. Gardner, C. Abraham, S. Skippon, H. Dittmar, R. Hutchins, J. Stannard, Mainstream consumers driving plug-in battery-electric and plug-in hybrid electric cars: a qualitative analysis of responses and evaluations. Transp. Res. A Policy Pract. 46(1), 140–153 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Junquera, B. Moreno, R. Álvarez, Analyzing consumer attitudes towards electric vehicle purchasing intentions in Spain: technological limitations and vehicle confidence. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 109, 6–14 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Pisu, G. Rizzoni, A comparative study of supervisory control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 15(3), 506–518 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.C. Chan, The state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. Proc. IEEE 95(4), 704–718 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Business Insider, David Scutt, 2016 was a record-breaking year for global car sales, and it was almost entirely driven by China, (2016), http://www.businessinsider.com/2016-was-a-record-breaking-year-for-global-car-sales-and-it-was-almost-entirely-driven-by-china-2017-1
  9. 9.
    J.E. Kang, T. Brown, W.W. Recker, G.S. Samuelsen, Refuelling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles with 68 proposed refuelling stations in California: measuring deviations from daily travel patterns. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 39(7), 3444–3449 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H2 Mobility, (2017), http://h2-mobility.de/en/
  11. 11.
    Electriccarsreport.com, Global Plug-in Vehicle Sales for 2016 (2016), http://electriccarsreport.com/2017/02/global-plug-vehicle-sales-2016/
  12. 12.
    Forbes, Robert Rapier, U.S. electric vehicle sales soared in 2016 (2016), https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2017/02/05/u-s-electric-vehicle-sales-soared-in-2016/#5c85cdcd217f
  13. 13.
    S. Hardman, R. Steinberger-Wilckens, D. van der Horst, Disruptive innovations: the case for hydrogen fuel cells and battery electric vehicles. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 38(35), 15438–15451 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Maniatopoulos, J. Andrews, B. Shabani, Towards a sustainable strategy for road transportation in Australia: the potential contribution of hydrogen. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 52, 24–34 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Álvarez, F. Beltrán, I. Villar, A new approach to battery powered electric vehicles: a hydrogen fuel cell based range extender system. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 41, 4808–4819 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Glerum, L. Stankovikj, M. Thémans, M. Bierlaire, Forecasting the demand for electric vehicles: accounting for attitudes and perceptions. Transp. Sci. 48(4), 483–499 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Kettles, Electric Vehicle Charging Technology Analysis and Standards (No. FSEC-CR-1996-15) (Florida Solar, Cocoa, 2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Larminie, J. Lowry, Electric Vehicle Technology Explained (Wiley, Chichester, 2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hyundai, ix35 fuel cell. Realizing the dream (2015), http://worldwide.hyundai.com/WW/Showroom/Eco/ix35-Fuel-Cell/PIP/index.html. Accessed 11 Nov 2015
  20. 20.
    R. Álvarez, S. Zubelzu, G. Díaz, A. López, Analysis of low carbon super credit policy efficiency in European Union greenhouse gas emissions. Energy 82, 996–1010 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. Di Dio, D. La Cascia, R. Liga, R. Miceli, Integrated mathematical model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (PEMFC) with automotive synchronous electrical power drive. in Electrical Machines, 2008. ICEM 2008. 18th International Conference on IEEE (2008), pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.S. Kocha, Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, automotive applications, in Fuel Cells (Springer, New York, 2013), pp. 473–518Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. T. Pukrushpan, A. G. Stefanopoulou, H. Peng, Modeling and control for PEM fuel cell stack system, in American Control Conference, 2002. Proceedings of the 2002, vol. 4 (IEEE, 2002) pp. 3117–3122Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Meintz, M. Ferdowsi, Control strategy optimization for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle, in Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2008. VPPC’08 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.S. Won, R. Langari, Intelligent energy management agent for a parallel hybrid vehicle-part II: torque distribution, charge sustenance strategies, and performance results. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 54(3), 935–953 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Piccolo, L. Ippolito, V. zo Galdi, A. Vaccaro, Optimisation of energy flow management in hybrid electric vehicles via genetic algorithms, in Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, 2001. Proceedings 2001 IEEE/ASME International Conference on, vol. 1 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 434–439Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    F.U. Syed, H. Ying, M. Kuang, S. Okubo, M. Smith, Rule-based fuzzy gain-scheduling pi controller to improve engine speed and power behavior in a power-split hybrid electric vehicle, in Fuzzy Information Processing Society, 2006. NAFIPS 2006. Annual Meeting of the North American (IEEE, 2006), pp. 284–289Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.E. Goldberg, J.H. Holland, Genetic algorithms and machine learning. Mach. Learn. 3(2), 95–99 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. E. Goldberg, in Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Massachusetts, 1989)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    Brusa: on-line product catalogue, PDU254 datasheet, http://www.brusa.biz/en/products/system/hv-distribution/pdu254.html
  32. 32.
    California Environmental Protection Agency, Advanced clean cars portal. https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/acc/acc.htm
  33. 33.
    California Environmental Protection Agency, Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Assessments https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/zevprog/hydrogen/h2fueling.htm
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
    D. L. Greene, G. Duleep, Status and prospects of the global automotive fuel cell industry and plans for deployment of fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (2013)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    J. Romm, Tesla Trumps Toyota part II: The Big Problem with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles. The Energy Collective (2014), http://www.theenergycollective.com/josephromm/462826/tesla-trumps-toyota-part-ii-big-problem-hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicles
  40. 40.
    B. Snavely, GM, Honda to make hydrogen fuel cells at Michigan factory. USA today. http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/cars/2017/01/30/general-motors-honda-fuel-cell-deal/97240096/
  41. 41.
    The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway, http://www.scandinavianhydrogen.org/. Accessed 13 Oct 2016
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
    US Department of Energy, Fuel cell technologies market report 2015 (2016), https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/10/f33/fcto_2015_market_report.pdf
  45. 45.
    J. Weinert, J. Ogden, D. Sperling, A. Burke, The future of electric two-wheelers and electric vehicles in China. Energy Policy 36(7), 2544–2255 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversidad NebrijaMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations