Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital anomalies, occurring in 3 in 1000 births. It is better defined as an arrest of the development of the genital tubercle (GT) during week 6 and week 16 of gestation, leading to hypoplasia of the tissues forming the ventral aspect (ventral radius) of the penis beyond the division of the corpus spongiosum. It is characterized by a ventral triangular defect whose summit is the division of the corpus spongiosium, whose sides are represented by the two pillars of atretic spongiosum, and whose base is the glans itself. Surgery entails three main steps: 1) Degloving the GT to identify the level of division of the corpus spongiosum which is the main criteria to define hypospadias severity; 2) Choosing the adequate technique of urethroplasty; 3) Covering the straightened GT with penile skin. Evaluation of outcome is another critical step and includes functional and cosmetic results until adulthood.
KeywordsHypospadias Hypospadias surgery Urethroplasty
- Djordjevic ML, editor. Hypospadias surgery: challenges and limits. New York: Nova Biomedical Publishers; 2014.Google Scholar
- Duckett JW. Hypospadias repair. In: Frank JD, Gearhart JP, Snyder III HM, editors. Operative pediatric urology. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2002. p. 149–60.Google Scholar
- Duplay S. Sur le traitement chirurgical de l’hypospadias et de l’épispadias. Arch Gen Med. 1880;145:257–63.Google Scholar
- Mathieu P. Traitement en un temps de l’hypospadias balanique ou juxtabalanique. J Chir. 1932;39:481.Google Scholar
- Snyder H. The island onlay hypospadias repair. In: Hadidi AT, Azmy AF, editors. Hypospadias surgery. Heidelberg: Springer; 2003. p. 163–8.Google Scholar