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Dysphagie pp 5-53 | Cite as

Grundlagen der Schluckanatomie und -physiologie

  • Mario Prosiegel
  • Susanne Weber
Chapter
Part of the Praxiswissen Logopädie book series (PRAXISWISSEN)

Zusammenfassung

In diesem Kapitel werden zunächst Begriffe wie Schlucken, Dysphagie und Dysphagiologie erläutert. Danach erfolgt eine Beschreibung des physiologischen Schluckablaufes und der wichtigsten involvierten anatomischen Strukturen; dabei wird aus didaktischen Gründen die übliche Einteilung in vier Schluckphasen zugrunde gelegt. Abbildungen stellen die wichtigsten anatomischen Strukturen der Mundhöhle, des Pharynx und des Larynx dar; in übersichtlichen Tabellen werden alle am Schluckvorgang beteiligten Muskeln sowie deren Innervationsverhältnisse aufgeführt. Der Abschnitt über die normale und gestörte zentrale Steuerung des Schluckvorgangs behandelt die involvierten Strukturen von Großhirn und Hirnstamm; neben der normalen Schluckanatomie werden dabei stets typische Schädigungen mit der resultierenden Pathophysiologie des Schluckvorgangs beschrieben. In diesem neuroanatomischen Abschnitt werden auch wichtige Begriffe wie Schluckkortex, Schluckdominanz, Schluckzentren des Hirnstamms, Pseudobulbärparalyse und Bulbärparalyse im Detail erklärt. Der anschließende Abschnitt über wichtige Einflussfaktoren des Schluckens behandelt den Schluckvorgang des alternden Menschen sowie kognitive Störungen, die Schlucken negativ beeinflussen oder gar Dysphagien verursachen können. Abgerundet wird das Kapitel durch einen Abschnitt über die Bedeutung des Schluckens im Gesamtkontext menschlichen Verhaltens; dabei werden klassische Fragen der Verhaltensforschung auf die Dysphagiologie angewendet: Wie entwickelte bzw. entwickelt sich Schlucken in der menschlichen Phylogenese bzw. Ontogenese und welchen Stellenwert besitzt es in der Evolution?

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Prosiegel
    • 1
  • Susanne Weber
    • 2
  1. 1.MünchenDeutschland
  2. 2.FlorstadtDeutschland

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