Human Health Problems and Accidents Associated with Occurrence and Control of Storage Arthropods and Rodents

  • Vaclav StejskalEmail author
  • Jan Hubert
  • Zhihong Li


The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that the global human population will reach 9.8 billion in the year 2050, that is over 70% higher than the previous estimate cited by Hagstrum and Phillips (Ann Rev Entomol 62:379–397, 2017).



We would like to thank Dr. Jana Kovarova, Martin Markovic, Prof. Dr. Christos Athanassiou and Dr. Frank Arthur for the previous manuscript version reading and inviting us to write this review article. The work on this topic has been supported by the grant of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic No. MZE RO0417.


  1. Adler C (2013) New developments in stored product protection. Rural21. Int J Rural Dev 47:26–29Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed H (1983) Losses incurred in stored food grains by insect pests—a review. Pak J Agric Res 4:198–207Google Scholar
  3. Alanko K, Tuomi T, Vanhanen M, Pajari-Backas M, Kanerva L, Havu K, Saarinen K, Bruynzeel DP (2000) Occupational IgE-mediated allergy to Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle). Allergy 55:879–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexeeff GV, Kilgore WW (1983) Methyl bromide. Residue Rev 88:101–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvarez MJ, Castillo R, Rey A, Ortega N, Blanco C, Carrillo T (1999) Occupational asthma in a grain worker due to Lepidoglyphus destructor, assessed by bronchial provocation test and induced sputum. Allergy 54:884–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson RM (1993) Epidemiology. In: Cox FEG (ed) Modern parasitology: a textbook of parasitology, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, pp 75–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arlian LG (2002) Arthropod allergens and human health. Annu Rev Entomol 47:395–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armentia A, Fernandez A, Perez-Santos C, de la Fuente R, Sanchez P, Sanchis F, Mendez J, Stolle R (1994) Occupational allergy to mites in salty ham, chorizo and cheese. Allergol Immunopathol 22:152–154Google Scholar
  9. Arthur FH (1994) Efficacy of unsynergised deltamethrin and deltamethrin + chlorpyrifos-methyl combinations as protectants of stored wheat and stored corn (maize). J Stored Prod Res 30:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arthur FH, Throne JE, Simonaitis RA (1992) Degradation and biological efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl on wheat stored at five temperatures and three moisture contents. J Econ Entomol 85:1994–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Athavale A, Iyer A, Sahoo D, Salgia K, Raut A, Kanodra N (2011) Incidence of silicosis in flourmill workers. Indian J Occup Environ Med 15:104–108PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bahme AJ (1968) Cantharides toxicosis in the equine. Southwestern Veterinarian 21:147–148Google Scholar
  13. Baker AS, Swan MC (2013) A puzzling domestic infestation of the storage mite Tyrophagus longior. J Stored Prod Res 54:64–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Balinova AM, Mladenova RI, Shtereva DD (2007) Study on the effect of grain storage and processing on deltamethrin residues in post-harvest treated wheat with regard to baby-food safety requirements. Food Addit Contam 24:896–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Battersby S, Hirschhorn RB, Amman BR (2008) Commensal rodents. In: Bonnefoy X, Kampen H, Sweeney K (eds) Public health significance of urban pests. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp 387–419Google Scholar
  16. Baur X, Budnik LT, Preisser AM (2010a) Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers. [Gesundheitsrisiken durch Begasungsmittelreste in Importcontainern.]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 135:516–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baur X, Poschadel B, Budnik LT (2010b) High frequency of fumigants and other toxic gases in imported freight containers—an underestimated occupational and community health risk. Occup Environ Med 67:207–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baur X, Budnik LT, Zhao Z, Bratveit M, Djurhuus R, Verschoor L, Rubino FM, Colosio C, Jepsen JR (2015) Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds. J Occup Med Toxicol 10:19PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. BBC (2017) UN: world facing greatest humanitarian crisis since 1945. BBC.comGoogle Scholar
  20. Bengston M (1976) Timed daily emission of dichlorvos for control of Ephestia cautelia (Walker) infesting stored wheat. J Stored Prod Res 12:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blanco C, Quiralte J, Castillo R, Delgado J, Arteaga C, Barber D, Carrillo T (1997) Anaphylaxis after ingestion of wheat flour contaminated with mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:308–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blum D (2014) Dead tourists and a dangerous pesticide. Wired.comGoogle Scholar
  23. Bond EJ (1984) Fumigation and controlled atmosphere storage. In: Bond EJ (ed) Manual of fumigation for insect control. FAO plant production and protection paper 54. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  24. Brito FF, Mur P, Barber D, Lombardero M, Galindo PA, Gomez E, Borja J (2002) Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a wool worker caused by Dermestidae spp. Allergy 57:1191–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Broce AB, Zurek L, Kalisch JA, Brown R, Keith DL, Gordon D, Goedeke J, Welbourn C, Moser J, Ochoa R, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Yip F, Weber J (2006) Pyemotes herfsi (Acari: Pyemotidae), a mite new to North America as the cause of bite outbreaks. J Med Entomol 43:610–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, Green JL, Rumack BH, Giffin SL (2009) 2008 annual report of the American association of poison control centers’ national poison data system (NPDS): 26th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol 47:911–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bumbrah GS, Krishan K, Kanchan T, Sharma M, Sodhi GS (2012) Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature. Forensic Sci Int 214:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burgess JL, Morrissey B, Keifer MC, Robertson WO (2000) Fumigant-related illnesses: Washington State’s five-year experience. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 38:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Calvert GM, Mueller CA, Fajen JM, Chrislip DW, Russo J, Briggle T, Fleming LE, Suruda AJ, Steenland K (1998) Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers. Am J Public Health 88:1774–1780PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cebolla R, Pekar S, Hubert J (2009) Prey range of the predatory mite Cheyletus malaccensis (Acari: Cheyletidae) and its efficacy in the control of seven stored-product pests. Biol Control 50:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Channaiah LH, Subramanyam B, Zurek L (2010) Survival of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF: pCF10 in poultry and cattle feed: vector competence of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). J Food Prot 73:568–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chugh SN, Aggarwal HK, Mahajan SK (1998) Zinc phosphide intoxication symptoms: analysis of 20 cases. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36:406–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Club UPI (2014) 957–03/14—Disposal of aluminium phosphide residues following fumigation of cargoes in transit—worldwide. UK P&I Club, Loss PreventionGoogle Scholar
  34. CNN (2002) House explosion blamed on natural gas. CNN.comGoogle Scholar
  35. Cotton RT, Walkden HH, White GD, Wilbur DA (1960) Causes of outbreaks of stored-grain insects. Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, Manhattan, KS, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. Crippen TL, Zheng L, Sheffield CL, Tomberlin JK, Beier RC, Yu Z (2012) Transient gut retention and persistence of Salmonella through metamorphosis in the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Appl Microbiol 112:920–926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. CT24 (2011) A supermarket at Marianske Lazne was endangered by mice. [Supermarket v Marianskych Laznich ohrozily mysi]. CT24.czGoogle Scholar
  38. Cui Y (2014) When mites attack: domestic mites are not just allergens. Parasites Vectors 7:411PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. da Cunha US, Silva ES, de Moraes GJ, Vendramim JD (2006) Occurrence of the mite Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae) in insect rearing in laboratory. [Ocorrencia do acaro Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae) em criacoes de insetos em laboratorio.]. Neotropical Entomol 35:563–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dauguet S (2007) Insecticide residues cross-contamination of oilseeds during storage. OCL—Oilseeds Fats, Crops Lipids/Oleagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides 14:313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dauguet S (2009) Insecticide residues cross-contamination of oilseeds during storage (second part). OCL—Oilseeds Fats, Crops Lipids/Oleagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides 16:144–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dauguet S, Loison J-P Fleurat-Lessard F (2011) Cross-contamination of rapeseed seeds by postharvest insecticide residues during seed storage. Pages 81–85. In: GCIRC, editor. Abstract book of the 13th international rapeseed congress, vol 1. Prague, Czech Republic. International Consultative Research Group on Rapeseed (GCIRC), Prague, Czechia, June 5–9 2011Google Scholar
  43. Dauguet SF, Fleurat-Lessard, Loison J (2010) Cross-contamination of oilseeds by insecticide residues during storage. Pages 827–832. In: Carvalho MO, Fields PG, Adler CS, Arthur FH, Athanassiou CG, Campbell JF, Fleurat-Lessard F, Flinn PW, Hodges RJ, Isikber AA, Navarro S, Noyes RT, Riudavets J, Sinha KK, Thorpe GR, Timlick BH, Trematerra P, White NDG (eds) Proceedings of the 10th international working conference on stored product protection, vol 2. Estoril, Portugal. Julius-Kuhn-Archiv 425, 27 June–2 July 2010Google Scholar
  44. De Smedt C, Someus E, Spanoghe P (2015) Potential and actual uses of zeolites in crop protection. Pest Manag Sci 71:1355–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dennis CAR (1973) Health hazards of grain storage. In: Sinha RN, Muir WE (eds) Grain storage: part of a system. Avi Publishing Company, Westport, CT, USA, pp 367–387Google Scholar
  46. Deschamps FJ, Turpin JC (1996) Methyl bromide intoxication during grain store fumigation. Occup Med (London) 46:89–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dharmaputra OS, Halid H, Sunjaya, Khim SK (1994) The effect of Sitophilus zeamais on fungal infection, aflatoxin production, moisture content and damage to kernels of stored maize. Pages 981–984. In: Highley E, Wright EJ, Banks HJ, Champ BR (eds) Stored product protection, proceedings of the 6th international working conference on stored-product protection, Canberra, Australia. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 17–23 April 1994Google Scholar
  48. Eddleston M, Karalliedde L, Buckley N, Ravindra F, Hutchinson G, Isbister G, Konradsen F, Murray D, Piola JC, Senanayake N, Sheriff R, Singh S, Siwach SB, Smit L (2002) Pesticide poisoning in the developing world—a minimum pesticides list. Lancet 360:1163–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Elliott SP (2007) Rat bite fever and Streptobacillus moniliformis. Clin Microbiol Rev 20:13–22PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. el-Mofty MM, Osman SI, Sakr SA, Toulan BA (1988) Carcinogenicity of flour infested with Tribolium castaneum using the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis as a biological test animal. Oncology 45:65–67Google Scholar
  51. el-Mofty MM, Sakr SA, Osman SI Toulan BA (1989) Carcinogenic effect of biscuits made of flour infested with Tribolium castaneum in Bufo regularis. Oncology 46:63–65Google Scholar
  52. el-Mofty MM, Khudoley VV, Sakr SA, Fathala NG (1992) Flour infested with Tribolium castaneum, biscuits made of this flour, and 1,4-benzoquinone induce neoplastic lesions in Swiss albino mice. Nutr Cancer 17:97–104Google Scholar
  53. FDA (1988) Wheat flour-adulteration with insect fragments and rodent hairs. Compliance Policy Guides. Chap. 4: Processed Grain Guide 7104.06. U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
  54. Fleurat-Lessard F (2002) Qualitative reasoning and integrated management of the quality of stored grain: a promising new approach. J Stored Prod Res 38:191–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fleurat-Lessard F, Chaurand M, Marchegay G, Abecassis J (2007) Effects of processing on the distribution of pirimiphos-methyl residues in milling fractions of durum wheat. J Stored Prod Res 43:384–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Flinn PW, Hagstrum DW (2001) Augmentative releases of parasitoid wasps in stored wheat reduces insect fragments in flour. J Stored Prod Res 37:179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fourar-Belaifa R, Fleurat-Lessard F, Bouznad Z (2011) A systemic approach to qualitative changes in the stored-wheat ecosystem: prediction of deterioration risks in unsafe storage conditions in relation to relative humidity level, infestation by Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and wheat variety. J Stored Prod Res 47:48–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Freeman JA (1973) Infestation and control of pests of stored grain in international trade. In: Sinha RN, Muir WE (eds) Grain storage: part of a system. Avi Publishing Company, Westport, CT, USA, pp 99–136Google Scholar
  59. Gargi J, Rai H, Chanana A, Rai G, Sharma G, Bagga IJ (2006) Current trend of poisoning—a hospital profile. J Indian Med Assoc 104(72–73):94Google Scholar
  60. Garry VF, Danzl TJ, Tarone R, Griffith J, Cervenka J, Krueger L, Whorton EBJ, Nelson RL (1992) Chromosome rearrangements in fumigant appliers: possible relationship to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1:287–291Google Scholar
  61. Goddard J (2003) Physician’s guide to arthropods of medical importance, 4th edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USAGoogle Scholar
  62. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:812–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gonzalez-Perez R, Poza-Guedes P, Matheu V, Sanchez-Machin I (2013) Oral mite ingestion: expect more than anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 132:505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gorham JR (1979) The significance for human health of insects in food. Annu Rev Entomol 24:209–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grain SAo (2002) Grain storage. State Administration of Grain, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  66. Gu H (2016) China to eliminate most open air grains storage to cut losses. Reuters.comGoogle Scholar
  67. Gupta SK, Peshin SS, Srivastava A, Kaleekal T (2003) A study of childhood poisoning at national poisons information centre, all india institute of medical sciences, New Delhi. J Occup Health 45:191–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hagstrum DW, Phillips TW (2017) Evolution of stored-product entomology: protecting the world food supply. Annu Rev Entomol 62:379–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hagstrum DW, Subramanyam B (2009) Stored-product insect resource. AACC International, Saint Paul, MN, USAGoogle Scholar
  70. Harper P (2011) Assessment of the major hazard potential of carbon dioxide (CO2). Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Bootle, UKGoogle Scholar
  71. Hatsushika R, Miyoshi K, Okino T (1990) Case studies on sting dermatitis by bethylid wasp, Cephalonomia gallicola (Ashmead, 1887) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) found in Okayama, Japan. Kawasaki Med J 16:133–140Google Scholar
  72. Herling C, Svendsen UG, Schou C (1995) Identification of important allergenic proteins in extracts of the granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius). Allergy 50:441–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Heyder J, Gebhart J, Rudolf G, Schiller CF, Stahlhofen W (1986) Deposition of particles in the human respiratory tract in the size range 0.005–15 μm. J Aerosol Sci 17:811–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hirschhorn RB, Hodge RR (1999) Identification of risk factors in rat bite incidents involving humans. Pediatrics 104:e35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hodges RJ, Robinson R, Hall DR (1996) Quinone contamination of dehusked rice by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Stored Prod Res 32:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Holgate ST (1999) The epidemic of allergy and asthma. Nature 402:B2–B4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Howard RW (1987) Chemosystematic studies of the Triboliini (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): phylogenetic inferences from the defensive chemicals of eight Tribolium spp., Palorus ratzeburgi (Wissmann), and Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse. Ann Entomol Soc Am 80:398–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jones AT, Jones RC, Longley EO (1964) Environmental and clinical aspects of bulk wheat fumigation with aluminum phosphide. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 25:376–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Judd WW (1956) A carpet beetle larva (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) from the digestive tract of a woman. J Parasitol 42:172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kimball J (1997) Industrial silo fire and explosions: Charlotte, North Carolina. USFA-TR-122/December 1997. U.S. Fire Administration, Emmitsburg, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
  81. Kloth S, Baur X, Goen T, Budnik LT (2014) Accidental exposure to gas emissions from transit goods treated for pest control. Environ Health 13:110PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Langard S, Rognum T, Flotterod O, Skaug V (1996) Fatal accident resulting from methyl bromide poisoning after fumigation of a neighbouring house; leakage through sewage pipes. J Appl Toxicol 16:445–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lastovickova J (1992) Acute pesticide poisonings from the perspective of the Toxicological Information Centre in Prague [Akutni otravy pesticidy z pohledu Toxikologickeho informacniho centra v Praze]. Zpravodaj Ceskeho sdruzeni profesionalnich pracovniku v DDD 2:28–29Google Scholar
  84. Lau S, Falkenhorst G, Weber A, Werthmann I, Lind P, Buettner-Goetz P, Wahn U (1989) High mite-allergen exposure increases the risk of sensitization in atopic children and young adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 84:718–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lauterbach M, Solak E, Kaes J, Wiechelt J, Von Mach M-A, Weilemann LS (2005) Epidemiology of hydrogen phosphide exposures in humans reported to the poison center in Mainz, Germany, 1983–2003. Clin Toxicol 43:575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lee I-Y, Shin C-S, Sim S, Park J-W, Yong T-S (2014) Human sting of Cephalonomia gallicola (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 52:681–684PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. LeMay MC (2015) Doctors at the borders: immigration and the rise of public health. Praeger, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  88. Li C-P, Wang J (2000) Intestinal acariasis in Anhui Province. World J Gastroenterol 6:597–600PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Li C-P, Cui Y-B, Wang J, Yang Q-G, Tian Y (2003) Acaroid mite, intestinal and urinary acariasis. World J Gastroenterol 9:874–877PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lillie TH, Pratt GK (1980) The hazards of ingesting beetle larvae. USAF Med Serv Dig 31:32–39Google Scholar
  91. Lockwood JA (2012) Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture. Annu Rev Entomol 57:205–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Loir A, Legangneux H (1922) Accidents at workplace caused by beetles [Accidents de travail occasionnes par des coleopteres]. Bull l’Acad Med 88:68–72Google Scholar
  93. Lunn JA (1966) Millworkers’ asthma: allergic responses to the grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius). Br J Ind Med 23:149–152PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Makinen-Kiljunen S, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Petman L, Rinne J, Haahtela T (2001) A baker’s occupational allergy to flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella). Allergy 56:696–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Marraccini P, Previdi M, Cantone L, Varin E, Salimbeni R, Todaro A, Panciera D, Costamagna P (2007) The possible role of cockroaches in baker’s asthma. Med Lav 98:284–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Matsumoto T, Hisano T, Hamaguchi M, Miike T (1996) Systemic anaphylaxis after eating storage-mite-contaminated food. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 109:197–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mazanek L (2002) Bethylid wasps (Bethylidae, Hymenoptera) as the originators of allergic skin reaction [Hbitenky (Bethylidae, Hymenoptera) jako puvodci alergicke reakce kuze]. V. konference DDD: Privorovy dny, 14–16 May 2002. Sdruzeni DDD, Praha, Czechia, pp 131–136Google Scholar
  98. McGillivray A, Wilday J (2009) Comparison of risks from carbon dioxide and natural gas pipelines. Research Report RR749. Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Bootle, UKGoogle Scholar
  99. Mehler LN, O’Malley MA, Krieger RI (1992) Acute pesticide morbidity and mortality: California. In: Ware GW (ed) Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, pp 51–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Meijer R, Gast CH (2004) Spontaneous combustion of biomass: experimental study into guidelines to avoid and control this phenomena. In: Proceedings of the 2nd world conference on biomass for energy, industry and climate protection, vol II, Rome, Italy, 10–14 May 2004. ETA-Florence & WIP-Munich, Florence, Italy & Munchen, Germany, pp 1231–1233Google Scholar
  101. MSIU (2013) MV Theofylaktos: explosions in four cargo holds at Rio Grande Outer Anchorage: 22 December 2012. Safety investigation report No. 21/2013. Transport Malta, Marine Safety Investigation Unit (MSIU), Marsa, MaltaGoogle Scholar
  102. Muir WE, White NDG (2000) Chemical control metods. In: Muir WE (ed) Grain preservation biosystems. University of Manitoba, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Winnipeg, MBGoogle Scholar
  103. Murphy D (2015) Silo gases—the hidden danger. Pennsylvania State University, PennState Extension, State College, PA, USAGoogle Scholar
  104. Musken H, Franz J-T, Wahl R, Paap A, Cromwell O, Masuch G, Bergmann K-C (2000) Sensitization to different mite species in German farmers: clinical aspects. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 10:346–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Navarro S (2006) Modified atmospheres for the control of stored-product insects and mites. In: Heaps JW (ed) Insect management for food storage and processing, 2nd edn. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp 105–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nesse RM (2001) The smoke detector principle. Natural selection and the regulation of defensive responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci 935:75–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nesse RM, Williams GC (1995) Evolution and healing. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  108. Neto HJC, Rosario NA, Hubert J, Zdarkova E, Oliveira CH (2002) Skin test reactivity to Cheyletus eruditus (Ce) in atopic patients. Allergy 57:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Newton I, Wyllie I, Freestone P (1990) Rodenticides in British barn owls. Environ Pollut 68:101–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. NIOSH (1999) Preventing phosphine poisoning and explosions during fumigation. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 99–126, September 1999. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH, USAGoogle Scholar
  111. O’Malley M, Fong H, Sanchez ME, Roisman R, Nonato Y, Mehler L (2013) Inhalation of phosphine gas following a fire associated with fumigation of processed pistachio nuts. J Agromed 18:151–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Okumura GT (1967) A report of canthariasis and allergy caused by Trogoderma (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Calif Vector Views 14:19–24Google Scholar
  113. Olsen AR (1998) Regulatory action criteria for filth and other extraneous materials. II. Allergenic mites: an emerging food safety issue. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 28:190–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Orriss GD, Whitehead AJ (2000) Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) as a part of an overall quality assurance system in international food trade. Food Control 11:345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Perotti AM, Lee Goff M, Baker AS, Turner BD, Braig HR (2009) Forensic acarology: an introduction. Exp Appl Acarol 49:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Persson H (2013) Silo fires: fire extinguishing and preventive and preparatory measures. Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), Karlstad, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  117. Phillips TW, Throne JE (2010) Biorational approaches to managing stored-product insects. Annu Rev Entomol 55:375–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Platts-Mills TAE, Vaughan JW, Carter MC, Woodfolk JA (2000) The role of intervention in established allergy: avoidance of indoor allergens in the treatment of chronic allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 106:787–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Poza Guedes P, Sanchez Machin I, Matheu V, Iraola V, Gonzalez Perez R (2016) Role of predatory mites in persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. Can Respir J 2016:5782317PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Preisser AM, Budnik LT, Hampel E, Baur X (2011) Surprises perilous: toxic health hazards for employees unloading fumigated shipping containers. Sci Total Environ 409:3106–3113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Preisser AM, Budnik LT, Baur X (2012) Health effects due to fumigated freight containers and goods: how to detect, how to act. Int Marit Health 63:133–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Safety4sea (2017) Fumigation causes explosion. Safety4sea.comGoogle Scholar
  123. Sanchez-Borges M, Fernandez-Caldas E (2015) Hidden allergens and oral mite anaphylaxis: the pancake syndrome revisited. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 15:337–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sanchez-Borges M, Capriles-Hulett A, Fernandez-Caldas E, Suarez-Chacon R, Caballero F, Castillo S, Sotillo E (1997) Mite-contaminated foods as a cause of anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:738–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sanchez-Borges M, Suarez Chacon R, Capriles-Hulett A, Caballero-Fonseca F, Fernandez-Caldas E (2013) Anaphylaxis from ingestion of mites: pancake anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131:31–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Santos JP (2007) Alternatives to chemical control of stored-product insects on small farms in the tropics. In: Lorini I, Bacaltchuk B, Beckel H, Deckers D, Sundfeld E, dos Santos JP, Biagi JD, Celaro JC, Faroni LRDA, Bortolini LdOF, Sartori MR, Elias MC, Guedes RNC, da Fonseca RG, Scussel VM (eds) Proceedings of the 9th international working conference on stored product protection, 15–18 October 2006, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Post-harvest Association—ABRAPOS, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, pp 663–673Google Scholar
  127. Service, N. Z. C (2012) Report on the outcomes of the fumigant risk study (for external release). New Zealand Customs Service, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  128. Sheldon JM, Johnston JH (1941) Hypersensitivity to beetles (Coleoptera). Report of a case. J Allergy 12:493–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sherrard GC (1928) The practical application of two qualitative tests for HCN in ship fumigation. Public Health Rep 43:1016–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sherson D (2002) Silicosis in the twenty first century. Occup Environ Med 59:721–722PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Siegel S, Lee N, Rohr A, Ank B, Katz R, Rachelefsky G, Spector S, Siegel J (1991) Evaluation of dermestid sensitivity in museum personnel. Jf Aller Clin Immunol 87:190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith CC, Reichman OJ (1984) The evolution of food caching by birds and mammals. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 15:329–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Snyder KA, Bobick TG, Hanz JL Myers JR (1992) Grain-handling fatalities in production agriculture, 1985–1989. Paper no. 92-5509. 1992 International Winter Meeting, Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MIGoogle Scholar
  134. Solarz K (2009) Indoor mites and forensic acarology. Exp Appl Acarol 49:135–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Spijkerboer H, de Vries I, Meulenbelt J (2008) Use of fumigants in sea containers can lead to serious human poisonings. Toxicol Lett 180:S139–S140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stejskal V (2000) When and for whom is a pest a pest? Implications for marketing long-term pest control contracts. Int Pest Control 42:58–59Google Scholar
  137. Stejskal V (2001) A new concept of economic injury level that includes penalization of damage to quality and safety of agricultural products. Plant Prot Sci 37:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stejskal V (2002) Inversion relationship between action threshold and economic/aesthetic injury level for the control of urban and quarantine pests. J Pest Sci 75:158–160Google Scholar
  139. Stejskal V, Aulicky R (2014) Field evidence of roof rat (Rattus rattus) faecal contamination of barley grain stored in silos in the Czech Republic. J Pest Sci 87:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stejskal V, Hubert J (2006) Arthropods as sources of contaminants of stored products: an overview. In: Lorini I, Bacaltchuk B, Beckel H, Deckers D, Sundfeld E, dos Santos JP, Biagi JD, Celaro JC, Faroni LRDA, Bortolini LdOF, Sartori MR, Elias MC, Guedes RNC, da Fonseca RG, Scussel VM (eds) Proceedings of the 9th international working conference on stored product protection, 15–18 October 2006, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Post-harvest Association—ABRAPOS, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, pp 1074–1080Google Scholar
  141. Stejskal V, Hubert J (2008) Risk of occupational allergy to stored grain arthropods and false pest-risk perception in Czech grain stores. Ann Agric Environ Med 15:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Stejskal V, Hubert J, Aulicky R, Kucerova Z (2015) Overview of present and past and pest-associated risks in stored food and feed products: European perspective. J Stored Prod Res 64:122–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Stusinski M (2013) Indiana grain silo explosion leaves worker dead. Inquisitr.comGoogle Scholar
  144. Svedberg U, Johanson G (2013) Work inside ocean freight containers—personal exposure to off-gassing chemicals. Ann Occup Hyg 57:1128–1137PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Svendsen SW, Kolstad HA, Steesby E (2002) Bleeding problems associated with occupational exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 75:515–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tefera T, Kanampiu F, De Groote H, Hellin J, Mugo S, Kimenju S, Beyene Y, Boddupalli PM, Shiferaw B, Banziger M (2011) The metal silo: an effective grain storage technology for reducing post-harvest insect and pathogen losses in maize while improving smallholder farmers’ food security in developing countries. Crop Prot 30:240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tortarolo I (2011) Fumigants and dangerous gases in freight containers—Italian experiences. Zbl Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz Ergonomie 61:371–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tsai RJ, Sievert J, Prado J, Program IR, Buhl K, Stone DL, Forrester M, Higgins S, Mitchell Y, Schwartz A, Calvert GM (2014) Acute illness associated with use of pest strips—seven U.S. states and Canada, 2000–2013. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63:42–43Google Scholar
  149. Vasquez-Castro JA, Casadei de Baptista G, Gadanha CD Jr, Pimentel Trevizan LR (2008) Effect of spray volume on the moisture of stored corn and wheat grains. Braz Arch Biol Technol 51:453–456Google Scholar
  150. Vigliani EC, Mottura G (1948) Diatomaceous earth silicosis. Br J Ind Med 5:148–160PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Wagner M (2014) Illinois farmer falls into silo, dies after being buried alive in corn. NYDailynews.comGoogle Scholar
  152. Wagstaffe M, Prezant B, Keer S, Brewer N, Douwes J, McGlothlin J, Scharp M (2012) Hazard surveillance: residual chemicals in shipping containers. Safe Work Australia, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  153. Whittle CP, Annis PC, Waterford CJ (1994) Carbon monoxide in stored grain. SGRL, Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Annual report 1993–1994. CSIRO Division of Entomology, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  154. Williams CL (1931) Notes on the fumigation of vessels: preliminary inspection, how rats escape, increased periods of exposure, and other miscellaneous notes. Public Health Rep 46:2973–2980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Yan X-P, Zhou H, Shen Z-P, Li W-W, Guo D-L, Song Y-C, Lang S-B, Zhang J (2008) Summary and analysis of national investigations of stored grain insects in China. Chin J Grain Storage 37:3–11Google Scholar
  156. Yezerski A, Cussatt G, Glick D, Evancho M (2005) The effects of the presence of stored product pests on the microfauna of a flour community. J Appl Microbiol 98:507–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Yezerski A, Ciccone C, Rozitski J, Volingavage B (2007) The effects of a naturally produced benzoquinone on microbes common to flour. J Chem Ecol 33:1217–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Yoshikawa M (1985) Skin lesions of papular urticaria induced experimentally by Cheyletus malaccensis and Chelacaropsis sp. (Acari: Cheyletidae). J Med Entomol 22:115–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Yu C, Li Y, Zhang Q, Zou N, Gu K, Li X, Pan C (2014) Decrease of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice with post-harvest treatment. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:5372–5381PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zaebst DD, Blade LM, Burroughs GE, Morelli-Schroht P, Woodfin WJ (1988) Phosphine exposures in grain elevators during fumigation with aluminum phosphide. Appl Ind Hyg 3:146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zheng L, Crippen TL, Sheffield CL, Poole TL, Yu Z, Tomberlin JK (2012) Evaluation of Salmonella movement through the gut of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases 12:287–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zurek L, Gorham JR (2010) Insects as vectors of foodborne pathogens. In: Voeller JG (ed) Wiley handbook of science and technology for homeland security. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp 1169–1683Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crop Research InstitutePrague 6Czechia
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyCollege of Plant Protection, China Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations