Ökologie pp 195-232 | Cite as

Interspezifische Konkurrenz

  • Michael Begon
  • Robert W. Howarth
  • Colin R. Townsend


Nachdem wir in den vorangegangenen Kapiteln den Begriff der intraspezifischen Konkurrenz eingeführt haben, kann man sich leicht vorstellen, was mit interspezifischer Konkurrenz (zwischenartlicher Konkurrenz; engl. interspecific competition) gemeint ist: Infolge der Ausnutzung von Ressourcen oder der Interferenz durch eine andere Art leiden die Individuen einer Spezies unter verringerter Fruchtbarkeit, geringerer Überlebenswahrscheinlichkeit oder eingeschränktem Wachstum. Diese individuellen Einflüsse wirken sich mit ziemlicher Wahrscheinlichkeit auf die Populationsdynamik und die Verbreitung der konkurrierenden Arten aus. Diese wiederum beeinflussen die Zusammensetzung der Lebensgemeinschaften, denen sie angehören. Aber diese individuellen Effekte wirken auch auf die Evolution dieser Arten, die selbst wieder die Verbreitung und Populationsdynamik der Spezies beeinflussen kann.


  1. Passarge, J., Hol, S., Escher, M. & Huisman, J. (2006) Competition for nutrients and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion? Ecological Monographs, 76, 57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Petren, K. & Case, T.J. (1996) An experimental demonstration of exploitation competition in an ongoing invasion. Ecology, 77, 118–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Taniguchi, Y. & Nakano, S. (2000) Condition-specific competition: implications for the altitudinal distribution of stream fishes. Ecology, 81, 2027–2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Tilman, D. (1982) Resource Competition and Community Structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  5. Interlandi, S.J. & Kilham, S.S. (2001) Limiting resources and the regulation of diversity in phytoplankton communities. Ecology, 82, 1270–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Martin, J-L. & Thibault, J-C. (1996) Coexistence in Mediterranean warblers: ecological differences or interspecific territoriality? Journal of Biogeography, 13, 169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Martin, P.R. & Martin, T.E. (2001) Ecological and fitness consequences of species coexistence: a removal experiment with wood warblers. Ecology, 82, 189–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hay, M.E. & Taylor, P.R (1985) Competition between herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs. Oecologia, 65, 591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Morin, P.J., Lawler, S.P. & Johnson, E.A (1988) Competition between aquatic insects and vertebrates: interaction strength and higher order interactions. Ecology, 69, 1401–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kingsland, S.E. (1985) Modeling Nature. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  11. Volterra, V. (1926) Variations and fluctuations of the numbers of individuals in animal species living together. (Reprinted in 1931. In: Animal Ecology (R.N. Chapman, ed.), pp. 409–448. McGraw Hill, New York.)Google Scholar
  12. Lotka, A.J. (1932) The growth of mixed population: two species competing for a common food supply. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 22, 461–469Google Scholar
  13. Palmer, T.M., Young, T.P., Stanton, M.L. & Wenk, E. (2000) Short term dynamics of an acacia ant community in Laikipia, Kenya. Oecologia, 123, 425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Stanton, M.L., Palmer, T.M. & Young, T.P. (2002) Competition-colonization trade-offs in a guild of African acacia ants. Ecological Monographs, 72, 347–363Google Scholar
  15. Stoll, P. & Prati, D. (2001) Intraspecific aggregation alters competitive interactions in experimental plant communities. Ecology, 82, 319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Simberloff, D.S., Dayan T., Jones, C. & Ogura, G. (2000) Character displacement and release in the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus. Ecology, 91, 2086–2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gray, S.M. & Robinson, B.W. (2001) Experimental evidence that competition between stickleback species favours adaptive character divergence. Ecology Letters, 5, 264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rainey, P.B. & Trevisano, M. (1998) Adaptive radiation in a heterogeneous environment. Nature, 394, 69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buckling, A., McLean, R.C., Brockhurst, M.A & Colgrave, N. (2009) The Beagle in a bottle. Nature, 457, 824–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. terHorst, C.P. (2011) Experimental evolution of protozoan traits in response to interspecific competition. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 24, 36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Elliott, J.K. & Mariscal, R.N. (2001) Coexistence of nine anemonefish species: differential host and habitat utilization, size and recruitment. Marine Biology, 138, 23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies, S.J., Palmiotto, P.A., Ashton, P.S., Lee, H.S. & Lafrankie, J.V. (1998) Comparative ecology of 11 sympatric species of Macaranga in Borneo: tree distribution in relation to horizontal and vertical resource heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology, 86, 662–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dickie, I.A., Xu, B. & Koide, R.T. (2002) Vertical niche differentiation of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil as shown by T-RFLP analysis. New Phytologist, 156, 527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hurd, L.E. & Eisenberg, R.M. (1990) Experimentally synchronized phenology and interspecific competition in mantids. American Midland Naturalist, 124, 390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McKane, R.B., Johnson, L.C., Shaver, G.R. et al. (2002) Resource-based niches provide a basis for plant species diversity and dominance in arctic tundra. Nature, 415, 68–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gurevitch, J., Morrow, L.L., Wallace, A. & Walsh, J.S. (1992) A meta-analysis of competition in field experiments. American Naturalist, 140, 539–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lawlor, L.R. (1980) Structure and stability in natural and randomly constructed competitive communities. American Naturalist, 116, 394–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hermoyian, C.S., Leighton, L.R. & Kaplan, P. (2002) Testing the role of competition in fossil communities using limiting similarity. Geology, 30, 15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coomes, D.A., Rees, M., Turnbull, L. & Ratcliffe, S. (2002) On the mechanisms of coexistence among annual-plant species, using neighbourhood techniques and simulation models. Plant Ecology, 163, 23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaplan, I. & Denno, R.F. (2007) Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects revisited: a quantitative assessment of competition theory. Ecology Letters, 10, 977–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gotelli, N.J. & McCabe, D.J. (2002) Species co-occurrence: a meta-analysis of J.M. Diamond’s assembly rules model. Ecology, 83, 2091–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Begon
    • 1
  • Robert W. Howarth
    • 2
  • Colin R. Townsend
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolGroßbritannien
  2. 2.Department of EcologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of ZoologyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNeuseeland

Personalised recommendations