Advertisement

Mediastinum

  • Wolfgang Blank
  • Alexander Heinzmann
Chapter
  • 3.8k Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Mediastinale Raumforderungen liegen meist im vorderen oberen Mediastinum. Sie sind durch die transthorakale Sonographie fast genauso zuverlässig wie durch die Computertomographie beurteilbar und meist gut sonographisch gesteuert zur Gewebsgewinnung punktierbar. Bei akuter thorakaler Symptomatik ist das Verfahren als point-of-care Sonographie in der Notfalldiagnostik einsetzbar. Es zeigt allerdings gegenüber der CT nur Teilausschnitte des Mediastinums bei sehr wechselnder Bildqualität. Einige dieser Nachteile können durch den Einsatz der endoluminalen transösophagealen und endobronchialen Sonographie ausgeglichen werden. EUS-FNA spielt eine wichtige diagnostische Rolle bei der Stadienbestimmung von Lungenkrebs, der Diagnostik mediastinaler Raumforderungen und der Diagnosis von Sarkoidose. Hier ermöglicht der Einsatz von EUS-FNA eine Verringerung chirurgischer Eingriffe und unnötiger Thorakotomien, ist dazu kosteneffektiv und patientenfreundlich. Die Einführung der EUS wird durch die Verwendung der EBUS-Sonde vereinfacht.

Literatur

  1. Alvarez-Alvarez C, Otero Fernandez M, Cabero-Perez MJ, Guerra Dietz L, Galan Cuesta M, Agüeo Balbin J (2013) Description of tuberculosis outbreak and sefulness of mediastinal ultrasound. An Pediatr (Barc) Nov 79(5):293–9Google Scholar
  2. Beckh S, Bolcskei PL, Lessnau KD (2002) Real-time chest ultrasonography. A comprehensive review for the Pulmonologist. Chest 122:1759–1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Betsch B (1994) Farbdopplersonographie des Mediastinums. Radiologe 34:599-604Google Scholar
  4. Betsch B, Knopp MV, van Kaick G (1992) Malignant tumors and lymphomas of the mediastinum: diagnosis and follow-up with color assisted doppler sonography. Eur J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 118:10–7Google Scholar
  5. Betsch B, Berndt R, Knopp MV, Schmähl A, Trost U, Delorme S (1994) Vergleich von Computertomographie und B-Bild-Sonographie in der bildgebenden Diagnostik des Mediastinums. Bildgebung 61:295–298Google Scholar
  6. Blank W, Braun B (1995) Gewebsdiagnostik durch Dopplersonographie. Bildgebung 62:31–35Google Scholar
  7. Blank W, Braun B, Gekeler E (1986) Ultraschalldiagnostik und Feinnadelpunktion pleuraler, pulmonaler und mediastinaler Prozesse. In: Hansmann M (Hrsg) Ultraschalldiagnostik. Springer, Berlin, S 662–565Google Scholar
  8. Blank W, Braun B, Schuler A, Wild K (1996a) Die percutane Sonographie zur Differenzierung der Dysphagie. Ultraschall Med [Suppl 1]:32Google Scholar
  9. Blank W, Schuler A, Wild K, Braun B (1996b) Transthoracic sonography of the mediastinum. Eur J Ultrasound 3:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blank W, Schwaiger U, Wild K, Braun B (1998) Die percutane Sonographie zur Darstellung des cervicalen Ösophagus. Ultraschall Med [Suppl 1]:4Google Scholar
  11. Blank W, Mathis G, Osterwalder J (2014) Kursbuch Notfallsonographie. Thieme, Stuttgart, 2014Google Scholar
  12. Bollen EC, Goci R, v Hofgrootenboer BE, Versteege CWM, Engelshove HA, Lamers RJ (1994) Interobserver variability and accuracy of computed tomographic assessment of nodal status in lung cancer. Ann Thorax Surg 58:158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosch-Marcet J, Serres-Creixams X, Borras-Perez V et al. (2007) Value of sonographie for follow-up of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children with tuberculosis. J Clinical Ultrasound 35 Ausg 3:118–124Google Scholar
  14. Braun B (1983) Abdominelle und thorakale Ultraschalldiagnostik. In: Bock HE (Hrsg) Klinik der Gegenwart. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München, S 1141–1145Google Scholar
  15. Braun B (1992) Schilddrüse. In: Braun B, Günther R, Schwerk WB (Hrsg) Ultraschalldiagnostik. Lehrbuch und Atlas. ecomed, Landsberg/Lech, III-3.1Google Scholar
  16. Braun B, Blank W (2005) Sonographie von Hals und oberem Mediastinum. Internist 46(10):1133–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brüggemann A, Greie A, Lepsien G (1991) Real-time-sonography of the mediastinum in adults: a study in 100 healthy volunteers. Surg Endosc 5:150–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caremani M, Benci A, Tacconi D et al. (2009) Sonographic management of mediastinal syndrome. J Ulrasound 12(2):61–68Google Scholar
  19. Castellino RA, Blank N, Hoppe RT et al. (1986) Hodgkin disease: contributions of chest CT in the initial staging evaluation. Radiology 160:603–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen HJ, Liao WC, Liang SJ, LI CH, Tu Cy, Hsu WH (2014) Diagnostic impact of color ultrasound-guided core biopsy on fine-needle aspiration of anterior mediastinal masses. Ultrasound Med Biol 40(12):2768–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dietrich CF, Liesen M, Wehrmann T, Caspary WF (1995) Mediastinalsonographie: Eine neue Bewertung der Befunde. Ultraschall Med 16:6–1Google Scholar
  22. Dietrich CF, Liesen M, Buhl R, Herrmann G, Kirchner I, Caspary WF, Wehrmann T (1997) Detection of normal mediastinal lymphnodes by ultrasonography. Acta Radiol 38:965–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dietrich CF, Chickakli M, Burgon I, Wehrmann T, Wiewrodt R, Buhl R, Caspary WF (1999) Mediastinal lymphnodes demonstrated by mediastinal sonography: activity marker in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Ultrasound 27:9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ganesan S (2001) Sonographic approach to the superior mediastinum. Chest Radiology 11 (2):71–73Google Scholar
  25. Goldberg GG (1971) Suprasternal ultrasonography. JAMA 15:245–250Google Scholar
  26. Görg C, Seifart U, Görg K, Zugmaier G. (2003) Color Doppler Sonographic Mapping of Pulmonary Lesions. J Ultrasound Med 22:1033–1039Google Scholar
  27. Gulati M, Venkataramu NK, Gupta S (2000) Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mediastinal tuberculosis. Internat J Tuberculosis Lung 4 (12):1164–1168Google Scholar
  28. Heitzmann EK (1988) The mediastinum. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heizel M (1985) Sonographische Topographie des oberen vorderen Mediastinums. Ultraschall 6:101–109Google Scholar
  30. Herth FJF (2009) The Mediastinum. In: Bolliger CT, Herth FJF, Mayo PH, Miyazawa T, Beamis JF (eds) Clinical chest ultrasound. From the ICU to the Bronchoscopy Suite. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  31. Herth FJF, Becker HD (2003) Chest ultrasound; thoracic imaging; pleura mass; pleural effusion: Ultrasound guidance. Respiration 70:84–94Google Scholar
  32. Janssen J, Johanns W, Lehnhardt M, Jakobeit C, Greiner L (1997) Die transkutane Sonographie des gastroösophagealen Übergangs im prospektiven Vergleich mit der Endoskopie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 122:1167–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koh DM, Burke S, Davies N et al (2002) Transthoracic US of the Chest: clinical uses and applications. Radiographics 22: E1. Available: http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/22/1/e1Google Scholar
  34. Lengerke HV v., Schmid HC (1988) Mediastinalsonographie im Kindesalter. Radiologe 28:460–465Google Scholar
  35. Liu P, Daneman A, Stringer DA (1988) Real-time-sonography of mediastinal and juxtamediastinal masses in infants and children. J Can Assoc Radiol 39:198–203Google Scholar
  36. Moseme T, Andronikou S (2014) Through the eye of the suprasternal notch: point-of-care sonography for tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Radiol 44:681–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nasit JG, Patel M, Parikh B, Shah M, Davara K (2013) Anterior mediastinal masses: a study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure. South Asian J Cancer 2(1):7–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palabiyik FB, Bayramoglu S, Gunert NT, Daglar S, Cimilli T (2012). Use of sonography for evaluation of the cervical and thoracic esophagus in children. J Ultrasound Med 31(9):1375–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Rosenberg JC (1993) Neoplasms of the mediastinum. In: De Vita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (Hrsg) Cancer: principles & practice of oncology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, S 759–775Google Scholar
  40. Schuler A, Blank W, Braun B (1995) Sonographisch-interventionelle Diagnostik bei Thymomen. Ultraschall Med 16:6–2Google Scholar
  41. Supakul N, Karmazyn B (2013) Ultrasound of the pediatric chest - the ins and outs. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 34(3):274–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wernecke K (1991) Mediastinale Sonographie, Untersuchungstechnik, diagnostische Effizienz und Stellenwert in der bildgebenden Diagnostik des Mediastinums. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  43. Wernecke K, Peters PE, Galanski M (1986) Mediastinal tumors: evaluation of suprasternal sonographie. Radiology 159:405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wernecke K, Pötter R, Peters PE (1988) Parasternal medisatinal sonography: sensitivity in the detection of anterior mediastinal and subcarinal tumors. Am J Roentgenol 150:1021–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhu SY et al (2005) Sonographic demonstration of the normal thoraxic esophagus. J Clin Ultrasound 33(1):29–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Annema JT, Veselic M, Versteegh MI, Rabe KF (2003a) Mediastinitis caused by EUS-FNA of a bronchogenic cyst. Endoscopy 35(9):791–793Google Scholar
  47. Annema JT, Veselic M, Versteegh MI, Willems LN, Rabe KF (2003b) Mediastinal restaging: EUS-FNA offers a new perspective. Lung Cancer 42(3):311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Annema JT, Hoekstra OS, Smit EF, Veselic M, Versteegh MI, Rabe KF (2004) Towards a minimally invasive staging strategy in NSCLC: analysis of PET positive mediastinal lesions by EUS-FNA. Lung Cancer 44(1):53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Annema JT, Veselic M, Rabe KF (2005a) Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J 25(3):405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Annema JT, Veselic M, Rabe KF (2005b) EUS-guided FNA of centrally located lung tumours following a non-diagnostic bronchoscopy. Lung Cancer 48(3):357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Annema JT, Versteegh MI, Veselic M, Voigt P, Rabe KF (2005c) Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer and its impact on surgical staging. J Clin Oncol 23(33):8357–8361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Annema JT, Versteegh MI, Veselic M, Welker L, Mauad T, Sont JK et al. (2005d) Endoscopic ultrasound added to mediastinoscopy for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer. JAMA 294(8): 931–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Annema JT, Bohoslavsky R, Burgers S et al. (2010) Implementation of endoscopic ultrasound for lung cancer staging. Gastrointest Endosc 71(1):64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Annema JT, van Meerbeeck JP, Rintoul RC et al. (2010) Mediastinoscopy vs endosonography for mediastinal nodal staging of lung cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA 304(20):2245–2252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Bartheld MB von, Dekkers OM, Szlubowski A et al. (2013) Endosonography vs conventional bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis: the GRANULOMA randomized clinical trial. JAMA 309(23):2457–2464Google Scholar
  56. Bartheld MB von, Breda A van, Annema JT (2014) Complication rate of endosonography (endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound): a systematic review. Respiration 87(4):343–351Google Scholar
  57. Costabel U, Hunninghake GW (1999) ATS/ERS/WASOG statement on sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Statement Committee. American Thoracic Society. European Respiratory Society. World Association for Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders. Eur Respir J 14(4):735–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. De Leyn P, Lardinois, Zielinski M et al. (2007) ESTS guidelines for preoperative lymph node staging for non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 32(1):1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. De Leyn P, Dooms, Kuzdzal J et al. (2014) Revised ESTS guidelines for preoperative mediastinal lymph node staging for non-small-cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 45(5):787–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Detterbeck FC, Jantz MA, Wallace M, Vansteenkiste J, Silvestri GA (2007) Invasive mediastinal staging of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, 2. Aufl. Chest 132 (3 Suppl):202S–220SGoogle Scholar
  61. Eloubeidi MA, Seewald S, Tamhane A, Brand B, Chen VK, Yasuda I et al. (2004) EUS-guided FNA of the left adrenal gland in patients with thoracic or GI malignancies. Gastrointest Endosc 59(6): 627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Eloubeidi MA, Tamhane A, Chen VK, Cerfolio RJ (2005a) Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer and prior negative mediastinoscopy. Ann Thorac Surg 80(4):1231–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Eloubeidi MA, Cerfolio RJ, Chen VK, Desmond R, Syed S, Ojha B (2005b) Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph node in patients with suspected lung cancer after positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans. Ann Thorac Surg 79(1):263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fritscher-Ravens A, Sriram PV, Bobrowski C, Pforte A, Topalidis T, Krause C et al. (2000) Mediastinal lymphadenopathy in patients with or without previous malignancy: EUS-FNA-based differential cytodiagnosis in 153 patients. Am J Gastroenterol 95(9): 2278–2284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fritscher-Ravens A, Sriram PV, Topalidis T, Hauber HP, Meyer A, Soehendra N et al. (2000) Diagnosing sarcoidosis using endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration. Chest 2000 118(4):928–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goldstraw P (2009) The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: A Proposal for a New International Lymph Node Map in the Forthcoming. Seventh Edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer. Journal of Thoracic Oncology 4(5):568-577, May 2009. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181a0d82eGoogle Scholar
  67. Hawes RH, Gress F, Kesler KA, Cummings OW, Conces DJ Jr. (1994) Endoscopic ultrasound versus computed tomography in the evaluation of the mediastinum in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Endoscopy 26(9):784–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Herth FJ, Lunn W, Eberhardt R, Becker HD, Ernst A (2005) Transbronchial vs. transesophageal ultrasound-guided aspiration of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171(10): 1164–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Herth FJ, Krasnik M, Kahn N et al. (2010) Combined endoscopic-endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes through a single bronchoscope in 150 patients with suspected lung cancer. Chest 138(4):790–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hwangbo B, Lee GK, Lee HS et al. (2010) Transbronchial and transesophageal fine-needle aspiration using an ultrasound bronchoscope in mediastinal staging of potentially operable lung cancer. Chest 138(4):795–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Iwashita T, Yasuda I, Doi S, Kato T, Sano K, Yasuda S, Nakashima M, Hirose Y, Takaimi T, Moriwaki H et al. (2008) The yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for histological diagnosis in patients suspected of stage I sarcoidosis. Endoscopy 40(5):400–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kang HJ, Hwangbo B, Lee GK et al. (2014) EBUS-centred versus EUScentred mediastinal staging in lung cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax 69 (3): 261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Konge L, Vilmann P, Clementsen P et al. (2012) Reliable and valid assessment of competence in endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration for mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer. Endoscopy 44(10):928–933Google Scholar
  74. Konge L, Annema J, Vilmann P et al. (2013) Transesophageal ultrasonography for lung cancer staging: learning curves of pulmonologists. J Thorac Oncol 8(11):1402–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kramer H, van Putten JW, Post WJ, van Dullemen HM, Bongaerts AH, Pruim J et al. (2004) Oesophageal endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration improves and simplifies the staging of lung cancer. Thorax 59(7):596–601PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Larsen SS, Krasnik M, Vilmann P, Jacobsen GK, Pedersen JH, Faurschou P et al. (2002) Endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsy of mediastinal lesions has a major impact on patient management. Thorax 57(2):98–103PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Larsen SS, Vilmann P, Krasnik M, Dirksen A, Clementsen P, Maltbaek N et al. (2005) Endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsy performed routinely in lung cancer staging spares futile thoracotomies: preliminary results from a randomised clinical trial. Lung Cancer 49(3):377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Leblanc JK, Devereaux BM, Imperiale TF, Kesler K, Dewitt JM, Cummings O et al. (2005) Endoscopic ultrasound in non-small cell lung cancer and negative mediastinum on computed tomography. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mountain CF, Dresler CM (1997) Regional lymph node classification for lung cancer staging. Chest 111(6):1718–1723.Google Scholar
  80. Navani N, Nankivell M, Lawrence DR et al. (2015) Lung cancer diagnosis and staging with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with conventional approaches: an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2015 3 (4):282–289PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oki M, Saka H, Ando M et al. (2014) Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: Are two better than one in mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 148(4):1169–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Oki M, Saka H, Ando M et al. (2015) Transbronchial versus transesophageal needle aspiration using an ultrasound bronchoscope for the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions: A Randomized Study. Chest 147 (5):1201–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pedersen BH, Vilmann P, Folke K, Jacobsen GK, Krasnik M, Milman N et al. (1996) Endoscopic ultrasonography and real-time guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of solid lesions of the mediastinum suspected of malignancy. Chest 110(2):539–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ringbaek TJ, Krasnik M, Clementsen P, Skov BG, Rasmussen EN, Vilmann P (2005) Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound/fineneedle aspiration diagnosis of a malignant adrenal gland in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer and a negative CT scan. Lung Cancer 48(2):247–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rintoul RC, Glover MJ, Jackson C et al. (2014) Cost effectiveness of endosonography versus surgical staging in potentially resectable lung cancer: a health economics analysis of the ASTER trial from a European perspective. Thorax 69 (7):679–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Savides TJ, Perricone A (2004) Impact of EUS-guided FNA of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes on subsequent thoracic surgery rates. Gastrointest Endosc 60(3): 340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schroder C, Schonhofer B, Vogel B (2005) Transesophageal echographic determination of aortic invasion by lung cancer. Chest 127(2):438–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schuurbiers OC, Tournoy KG, Schoppers HJ et al. (2011) EUS-FNA for the detection of left adrenal metastasis in patients with lung cancer. Lung Cancer 73(3):310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sharples LD, Jackson C, Wheaton E et al. (2012) Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound relative to surgical staging in potentially resectable lung cancer: results from the ASTER randomised controlled trial. Health Technol Assess 16(18):i–ivGoogle Scholar
  90. Silvestri GA, Gonzalez AV, Jantz MA et al. (2013) Methods for staging non-small cell lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3. Aufl. American College of Chest Physicians evidencebased clinical practice guidelines. Chest 143(5 Suppl):e211S-e250SGoogle Scholar
  91. Stigt JA, OostdijkAH, Timmer PR et al. (2009) Comparison of EUSguided fine needle aspiration and integrated PET-CT in restaging after treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer Nov; 66(2):198–204Google Scholar
  92. Toloza EM, Harpole L, McCrory DC (2003a) Noninvasive staging of non-small cell lung cancer: a review of the current evidence. Chest 123 [1 Suppl]:137S–146SGoogle Scholar
  93. Toloza EM, Harpole L, Detterbeck F, McCrory DC (2003b) Invasive staging of non-small cell lung cancer: a review of the current evidence. Chest 123 [1 Suppl]:157S–166SGoogle Scholar
  94. Tournoy KG, De Ryck F, Vanwalleghem LR, Vermassen F, Praet M, Aerts JG et al. (2008) Endoscopic ultrasound reduces surgical mediastinal staging in lung cancer: a randomized trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177(5):531–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tournoy KG, Annema JT, Krasnik M et al. (2009) Endoscopic and endobronchial ultrasonography according to the proposed lymph node map definition in the seventh edition of the tumor, node, metastasis classification for lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 4 (12):1576–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Varadarajulu S, Hoffman BJ, Hawes RH, Eloubeidi MA (2004a) EUSguided FNA of lung masses adjacent to or abutting the esophagus after unrevealing CT-guided biopsy or bronchoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 60(2):293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Varadarajulu S, Schmulewitz N, Wildi SF, Roberts S, Ravenel J, Reed CE et al. (2004b) Accuracy of EUS in staging of T4 lung cancer. Gastrointest Endosc 59(3):345–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vilmann P, Krasnik M, Larsen SS, Jacobsen GK, Clementsen P (2005) Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy: a combined approach in the evaluation of mediastinal lesions. Endoscopy 37(9):833–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wallace MB, Silvestri GA, Sahai AV, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ, Durkalski V et al. (2001) Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for staging patients with carcinoma of the lung. Ann Thorac Surg 72(6):1861–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wallace MB, Ravenel J, Block MI, Fraig M, Silvestri G, Wildi S et al. (2004) Endoscopic ultrasound in lung cancer patients with a normal mediastinum on computed tomography. Ann Thorac Surg 77(5):1763–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wallace MB, Pascual JM, Raimondo M, Woodward TA, McComb BL, Crook JE et al. (2008) Minimally invasive endoscopic staging of suspected lung cancer. JAMA 299(5):540–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wildi SM, Hoda RS, Fickling W, Schmulewitz N, Varadarajulu S, Roberts SS et al. (2003) Diagnosis of benign cysts of the mediastinum: the role and risks of EUS and FNA. Gastrointest Endosc 58(3):362–368Google Scholar
  103. Wildi SM, Judson MA, Fraig M, Fickling WE, Schmulewitz N, Varadarajulu S et al. (2004) Is endosonography guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for sarcoidosis as good as we think? Thorax 59(9):794–799PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Williams DB, Sahai AV, Aabakken L, Penman ID, Van Velse A, Webb J et al. (1999) Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy: a large single centre experience. Gut 44:720–726PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhang R, Ying K, Shi L et al. (2013) Combined endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for mediastinal lymph node staging of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 49(8):1860–1867Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Blank
    • 1
  • Alexander Heinzmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Universität TübingenKlinikum am Steinenberg, Kreiskliniken Reutlingen, Medizinische KlinikReutlingen

Personalised recommendations