Pathoanatomy of Glenohumeral Instability
Glenohumeral instability presents a variety of different forms, and the characteristic pathoanatomy also features a wide range of changes in soft tissue and bony structures depending on the different forms of instability. Age also affects the type of pathology. Arthroscopic examination enables us to identify common pathoanatomy of the glenohumeral instability, and the knowledge on the cardinal pathology of the instability is essential to understand individual instability patterns. Although the Bankart lesion, detachment of the anterior labrum at the glenoid, is the most common form of pathologic changes in the traumatic anterior instability, tears of the glenohumeral ligaments occur at any areas including either at the humeral insertion or ligament itself. The Hill–Sachs lesion is also commonly found in the traumatic anterior instability, which is also addressed in the treatment plan depending on the size of the lesion. While, capsular stretching or redundant capsular volume may primarily be responsible for the posteroinferior instability, capsulolabral detachment is also known as a leading pathology of the posterior or multidirectional instability. Preoperative recognition of the underlying pathoanatomy is crucial for the successful treatment of the individual glenohumeral instability.
KeywordsBankart lesion Glenohumeral instability Pathoanatomy Shoulder arthroscopy
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