Analyzing Stakeholders in Complex E-Government Projects: Towards a Stakeholder Interaction Model

  • Vanessa Greger
  • Dian Balta
  • Petra Wolf
  • Helmut Krcmar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8653)


To complete e-government projects successfully, various stakeholders with different interests need to be taken into account. So far, stakeholder models in the e-government context focus on individual stakeholder perspectives. They do not show or analyze interactions between stakeholders in detail. However, taking stakeholders’ interactions into account is important, since stakeholders influence each other - which can result in a change of their perspectives. Hence, our contribution illustrates how a stakeholder interaction model helps identifying different stakeholder perspectives. Therefore, we reviewed literature on existing stakeholder models. Besides, we conducted a stakeholder analysis in an e-government project in Germany and elicited stakeholders, assigned them to corresponding categories and modeled a stakeholder interaction model. Finally, we compared the findings of the literature review with the developed model. This contribution enlarges the theoretical foundations of the e-government research field. The stakeholder interaction model can be used by practitioners to identify stakeholders and their interactions.


stakeholder analysis stakeholder interaction model e-government project public sector public administration 


  1. 1.
    Savoldelli, A., Codagnone, C., Misuraca, G.: Explaining the eGovernment Paradox: An Analysis of Two Decades of Evidence from Scientific Literature and Practice on Barriers to eGovernment. In: ICEGOV 2012, Albany, NY, USA (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mertens, P.: Schwierigkeiten mit IT-Projekten der Öffentlichen Verwaltung: Neuere Entwicklungen. Informatik Spektrum 35(6), 433–446 (2012)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown, M.M.: Technology diffusion and the ’knowledge barrier’: the dilemma of stakeholder participation. Public Performance & Management Review 26(4), 345–359 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Flak, L.S., Nordheim, S.: Stakeholders, Contradictors and Salience: An Empirical Study of a Norwegian G2G effort. In: 2006 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mainardes, E., Alves, H., Raposo, M.: A model for stakeholder classification and stakeholder relationships. Management Decision 50(10), 1861–1879 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bryson, J.M.: What to do when stakeholders matter: Stakeholder identification and analysis techniques. Public Management Review 6(1), 21–53 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bryson, J.M., Patton, M.Q.: Analyzing and Engaging Stakeholders. In: Wholey, J., Hatry, H.P., Newcomer, K.E. (eds.) Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation, pp. 30–54. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freeman, R.E., Harrison, J.S., Wicks, A., Parmar, B.L., de Colle, S.: Stakeholder Theory: The state of the art. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levine, S., White, P.E.: Exchange as a Conceptual Framework for the Study of Interorganizational Relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly 5(4), 583–601 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sharp, H., Finkelstein, A., Galal, G.: Stakeholder Identification in the Requirements Engineering Process. In: 10th International Workshop on Database & Expert Systems Applications. IEEE (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Webster, J., Watson, R.T.: Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review. MIS Quarterly 26(2), 13–23 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neuroni, A.C., Fraefel, M., Riedl, R.: Inter-organizational Cooperation in Swiss eGovernment. In: Janssen, M., Scholl, H.J., Wimmer, M.A., Tan, Y.-h. (eds.) EGOV 2011. LNCS, vol. 6846, pp. 259–272. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gega, E., Elmazi, I.: E-Government and Public E-Services in Albania: Trends and Challenges. International Journal of Management Cases 14(2), 34–41 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gnan, L., Hinna, A., Monteduro, F., Scarozza, D.: Corporate governance and management practices: stakeholder involvement, quality and sustainability tools adoption. Journal of Management & Governance 17(4), 907–937 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chigona, W., Roode, D., Nabeel, N., Pinnock, B.: Investigating the impact of stakeholder management on the implementation of a public access project: The case of Smart Cape. South Africain Journal of Business Management 41(2), 39–49 (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Flak, L.S., Nordheim, S., Munkvold, B.E.: Analyzing Stakeholder Diversity in G2G Efforts: Combining Descriptive Stakeholder Theory and Dialectic Process Theory. e-Service Journal 6(2), 3–23 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berner, M.M., Amos, J.M., Morse, R.S.: What constitutes effective citizen participation in local government? Views from city stakeholders. Public Administration Quarterly 35(1), 128–163 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hardy, C.A., Williams, S.P.: Assembling E-Government Research Designs: A Transdisciplinary View and Interactive Approach. Public Administration Review 71(3), 405–413 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wolf, P., Krcmar, H.: E-Government: Bürger, Politiker und Unternehmen als Anspruchsgruppen. In: Roters, G., Turecek, O., Klinger, W. (eds.) Digitale Spaltung, pp. 21–24. Vistas Verlag, Berlin (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tan, C.-W., Pan, S.L., Lim, E.T.K.: Managing Stakeholder Interests in e-Government Implementation: Lessons Learned from a Singapore e-Government Project. Journal of Global Information Management 13(1), 31–53 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang, J., Dawes, S.S., Sarkis, J.: Exploring stakeholders’ expectations of the benfits and barriers of e-government knowledge sharing. The Journal of Enterprise Information Management 18(5), 548–567 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scholl, H.J.: Applying Stakeholder Theory to E-Government: Benefits and Limits. In: 1st IFIP Conference on E-Commerce, E-Business, and E-Government 2001, Zurich (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang, K., Callahan, K.: Citizen Involvement Efforts and Bureaucratic Responsiveness: Participatory Values, Stakeholder Pressure, and Administrative Practicality. Public Administration Review 67(2), 249–264 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Flak, L.S., Sein, M.K., Sæbø, Ø.: Towards a Cumulative Tradition in E-Government Research: Going Beyond the Gs and Cs. In: Wimmer, M.A., Scholl, J., Grönlund, Å. (eds.) EGOV. LNCS, vol. 4656, pp. 13–22. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    De, R.: E-Government Systems in Developing Countries: Stakeholders and Conflict. In: Wimmer, M.A., Traunmüller, R., Grönlund, Å., Andersen, K.V. (eds.) EGOV 2005. LNCS, vol. 3591, pp. 26–37. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Axelsson, K., Lindgren, I.: Public e-services for agency efficiency and citizen benefit: findings from a stakeholder centered analysis. Government Information Quarterly 30(1), 10–22 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fedorowicz, J., Gogan, J.L., Culnan, M.J.: Barriers to Interorganizational Information Sharing in e-Government: A Stakeholder Analysis. The Information Society 26(5), 315–329 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Flak, L.S., Rose, J.: Stakeholder Governance: Adapting Stakeholder Theory to E-Government. In: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 16, pp. 642–664 (2005)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johannessen, M.R., Flak, L.S., Sæbø, Ø.: Choosing the Right Medium for Municipal eParticipation Based on Stakeholder Expectations. In: Tambouris, E., Macintosh, A., Sæbø, Ø. (eds.) ePart 2012. LNCS, vol. 7444, pp. 25–36. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gomes, R., Gomes, L.O.M.: Depicting the arena in which Brazilian local government authorities make decisions: What is the role of stakeholders? International Journal of Public Sector Management 22(2), 76–90 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Heeks, R.: Benchmarking e-government: Improving the national and international measurement, evaluation and comparison of e-government. In: Irani, Z., Love, P. (eds.) Evaluating Information Systems. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (2008)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wieczorrek, H.W., Mertens, P.: Management von IT-Projekten: Von der Planung zur Realisierung, 3rd edn. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa Greger
    • 1
  • Dian Balta
    • 1
  • Petra Wolf
    • 1
  • Helmut Krcmar
    • 1
  1. 1.Fortiss – An-Institut der TU MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations