Advertisement

Abstract

The traditional material used for centuries in the manufacture of footwear has been natural leather. In recent years leather has also been increasingly used in the manufacture of gloves, clothing and upholstery. The success of leather in these applications is due to the good comfort and hygiene properties offered to the wearer. It is also very tough, reasonably flexible, has good durability and is able to breathe or transpire water vapour and air. Despite these good properties, however, it does suffer from a number of disadvantages such as non uniformity and the material cannot be obtained in rolls. Because of these disadvantages and the increasing shortage and cost of leather, polymers have been increasingly used as replacement materials during the last 20 years (1, 2). In the case of soling materials, only 6% of the footwear produced at present in the U. K. has leather soles. The rise in the use of polymeric based upper materials has not been as fast as soling materials but in 1970, 29% of the dress shoes produced in the U. K. had synthetic uppers.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1).
    Payne, A.R. and R.E. Whittaker, J. Inst. Rubb. Ind. 4, 107 (1970).Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    Whittaker, R.E., Polymer Age 2, 21 (1971).Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    Gillibrand, J., J. BBSI 15, 195 (1968).Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    Austin, P. R., US Patent 2, 302, 167 (Nov. 17th, 1942).Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    Hole, L.G. and R.E. Whittaker, J. Mat. Sci. 6, 1 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Hole, L. G., Rubb. J. 152(4), 72 (1970).Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    Payne, A.R., Paper presented to 4th Int. Synthetic Rubb. Conf. London (1969). Published in proceedings of Conference.Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    Sitting, M., Synthetic Leather from Petroleum. Chem. Proc. Review No. 29 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    Payne, A.R., R. W.T. Skelham and R.E. Whittaker, J. BBSI 17, 200 (1970).Google Scholar
  10. 10).
    Payne, A.R. and R.E. Whittaker, Rubb. J. 152(4), 89 (1970).Google Scholar
  11. 11).
    Harwood, J.A.C., A.R. Payne and R.E. Whittaker, Paper presented to IRI Conference “Advances in Polymer Blends and Reinforcement” Lougborough. Sept. 1969. Published in proceedings of Conference.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    Harwood, J.A.C., A.R. Payne and R.E. Whittaker, J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 14, 2183 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13).
    Gent, A.N. and A.G. Thomas, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 36, 597 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14).
    Whittaker, R.E., J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 15, 1205 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15).
    Harwood, J.A.C., A.R. Payne and R.E. Whittaker, J. Macromol Sci. B5, 473 (1971).Google Scholar
  16. 16).
    Whittaker, R. E. (to be published).Google Scholar
  17. 17).
    Smith, T.L., J. Poly. Sci. 20, 89 (1956).ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18).
    Smith, T.L., Trans. Soc. Rheol. 6, 61 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19).
    Ferry, J. D., Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, 2nd Edition (New York 1970).Google Scholar
  20. 20).
    Whittaker, R.E., Paper presented to SATRA Intersat’ 71 Conference, Blackpool Appl. 1971. Published in proceedings of Conference.Google Scholar
  21. 21).
    Whittaker, R. E., J. Coated Fibrous Mat. 2, 3 (1972).Google Scholar
  22. 22).
    Whittaker, R. E., Paper presented to IRI Rubbercorn conference, Brighton (1972). Published in proceedings conference.Google Scholar
  23. 23).
    Oertel, H, Textil-Praxis 19, 820 (1964).Google Scholar
  24. 24).
    Oertel, H., Bayer. Farbenrev. 11, 1 (1965).Google Scholar
  25. 25).
    Rinke, H., Angew. Chem. 74, 612 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26).
    Bonart, R., Kolloid Z. u. Z. Polymere 211, 14 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27).
    Bonart, R., J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B2, 115 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28).
    Shimanskii, V. M., S. L Shkolnik and S. B. Koza-kov, Soviet Rubb. Technol. 26, 20 (1967).Google Scholar
  29. 29).
    Bonart, R., L. Morbitzer and G. Hentze, J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B 3, 337 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30).
    Clough, S. B. and N. S. Schneider, J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B2, 553 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31).
    Clough, S. B., N. S. Schneider and A. O. King, J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B2, 641 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32).
    Saunders, J. H. and K. C. Frisch, Polyurethanes, Chemistry and Technology (New York 1962).Google Scholar
  33. 33).
    Harwood, J.A.C., A.R. Payne and J.F. Smith, Kaut. u. Gummi Kunst 22, 548 (1969).Google Scholar
  34. 34).
    Radok, J. R. M. and C. L. Tai, J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 6, 518 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Whittaker
    • 1
  1. 1.Shoe & Allied Trades Research Ass.Kettering, NorthantsEngland

Personalised recommendations