It is now widely recognized that characterization of the flow behavior of Theologically complex fluids from measurements in laminar shearing flow provides, at best, an incomplete picture of fluid response. Since many industrially important polymer operations, such as molding, sheet formation, and fiber spinning, may involve primarily an extension of fluid elements as opposed to a shearing of them, the behavior of polymeric fluids in extensional flow has become a subject of much interest. Beyond this immediate practical motivation for study of extensional flows is the fact that many of the forms of constitutive equations which are currently popular predict widely different responses for the relation between stress and strain rate (or stretch rate) in extensional flow. Thus the flow should be useful in providing a basis for discrimination between constitutive equations.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    Ballman, R. L., Rheol. Acta 4, 137 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2).
    Cogswell, F. N., Plast. Inst. Trans. J. 109, April, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    Vinogradov, G. V., B. V. Radushkevich, and V. D. Fikhman, J. Polymer Sci., A-2, 8, 1 (1970).Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    Astarita, G. and L. Nicodemo, Chem. Eng. J. 1, 57 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    Weinberger, C. B., Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1970.Google Scholar
  6. 6).
    Meißner, J, Rheol. Acta 10, 230 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7).
    Metzner, A. B. and A. P. Metzner, Rheol. Acta 9, 174 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8).
    Coleman, B. D. and W. Noll, Phys. Fluids 5, 840 (1962).ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9).
    Wankat, P. C., Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 8, 598 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10).
    Denn, M. M. and G. Marrucci, Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 17, 101 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11).
    Maerker, J. M., Ph. D. Thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    Tanner, R. L, Trans. Soc. Rheol. 12, 155 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13).
    Middleman, S., Trans. Soc. Rheol. 13, 123 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14).
    Metzner, A. B., J. L. White, and M. M. Denn, Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 12, 863 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15).
    Zidan, M., Rheol. Acta 8, 89 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16).
    Treloar, L. R. G., Trans. Inst. Rubber Ind. 19, 201 (1944).Google Scholar
  17. 17).
    Rivlin, R. S. and D. W. Saunders, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 243, 251 (1951).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18).
    Adkins, J. E. and R. S. Rivlin, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 244, 505 (1952).ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. 19).
    Denson, C. D. and R. J. Gallo, Polymer Eng. and Sci. 11, 174 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20).
    Joye, D. D., G. W. Poehlein, and C. D. Denson, “A Bubble Inflation Technique for the Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties in Equal Biaxial Extensional Flow”, paper presented at Society of Rheology meeting, Knoxville, Tennessee, October 1971.Google Scholar
  21. 21).
    Dickie, R. A. and T. L. Smith, J. Polymer Sci. A-2, 7, 687 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22).
    Timoshenko, S. P. and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, 3rd edition, pp. 392-395 (New York 1970).Google Scholar
  23. 23).
    Coleman, B. D., H. Markovitz, and W. Noll, Viscometric Flows of Non-Newtonian Fluids, p. 51 (New York 1966).Google Scholar
  24. 24).
    Lodge, A. S., Elastic Liquids, p. 116 (New York 1964).Google Scholar
  25. 25).
    Everage, A. E., Jr. and R. J. Gordon, Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 17, 1257 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26).
    Bird, R. B. and P. J. Carreau, Chem. Eng. Sci. 23, 427 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Maerker
    • 1
  • W. R. Schowalter
    • 2
  1. 1.Esso Production Research CompanyHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering PrincetonUniversity PrincetonNew JerseyUSA

Personalised recommendations