Biaxial extension of an elastic liquid
It is now widely recognized that characterization of the flow behavior of Theologically complex fluids from measurements in laminar shearing flow provides, at best, an incomplete picture of fluid response. Since many industrially important polymer operations, such as molding, sheet formation, and fiber spinning, may involve primarily an extension of fluid elements as opposed to a shearing of them, the behavior of polymeric fluids in extensional flow has become a subject of much interest. Beyond this immediate practical motivation for study of extensional flows is the fact that many of the forms of constitutive equations which are currently popular predict widely different responses for the relation between stress and strain rate (or stretch rate) in extensional flow. Thus the flow should be useful in providing a basis for discrimination between constitutive equations.
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