Response of bulk polymer under motion with constant stretch histories
In the investigation of non-Newtonian viscosity of polymeric materials both in solution and in melt, most experiments have been conducted under shearing flow, i. e., the velocity gradient of flow is perpendicular to the flow direction. One may consider other classes of flow, such as uniform flow, in that the velocity gradients of the flow are parallel to the flow direction. Uniform flow may include simple extensional flow, strip biaxial (pure shear) extensional flow and equal or nonequal biaxial extensional flow. It was reported by Ballman (1) that there is a large difference between viscosities in shear and simple extensional flow, thus it is pertinent to investigate the other kinds of uniform flow such as strip biaxial extensional flow.
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