Methods For Somatic Classification Of Pilots According To Status Of Functional Muscular, Circulatory And Respiratory Capacities, And Possibilities Of Further Development During Training
In the Swedish Defence Forces, especially the Air Force, testing of the physical capability of personnel at different ages has been carried out systematically for a number of years. A full series of measurements would appraise (a) certain body dimensions, such as height, weight, adipose tissue and lean body mass, skeletal length and breadth, total heart volume in the horizontal body position, and total blood volume; (b) functional muscular capacity, judged from the maximal isometric force of contraction in representative muscle groups; (c) functional circulatory and respiratory capacities, judged from the ventilation, oxygen uptake, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood lactate concentration and Ecg reaction etc., under steady-state conditions during stepwise increasing work loads of submaximal intensity and under non-steady-state conditions during maximum work load; from the circulatory responses to orthostatic testing; and from vital capacity and maximal ventilatory volume; (d) some index of endurance for work of very long duration.
The results of the dynamic tests are evaluated as indices of maximal functional output and of maximal steady-state level. These indices of physical capability depend on the dimensional prerequisites as well as on the efficacy of the homeostatic regulative functions. The different indices are mutually interrelated, to a greater or lesser degree, in the normal individual. Appraisal of these interrelationships is an important part of the testing procedure.
Results from testing large personnel groups with some of the above-mentioned methods will be mentioned.
Physical training of the circulatory system results in e.g. increased circulatory dimensions and increased maximal functional output, and apparently also in a higher efficacy of the homeostatic regulation - the orthostatic circulatory changes are less pronounced, and a higher proportion of the maximal output can be used under conditions of steady state.
Results from longitudinal studies of physical capability in large personnel groups during periods of physical training will be mentioned.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.E. Asmussen, K. Heeböll-Nielsen and Sv. Molbech, Methods for Evaluation of Muscle Strength. Comm. Testing Observ. Inst. Danish Nat. Ass. Infantile Paralysis, Copenhagen, 5, 3–13 (1959).Google Scholar
- 2.E. Asmussen, K. Heeböll-Nielsen and Sv. Molbech, Description of Muscle Tests and Standard Values of Muscle Strength in Children. Comm. Testing Observ. Inst. Danish Nat. Ass. Infantile Paralysis, Copenhagen, 5, Suppl., 3–59 (1959).Google Scholar
- 3.E. Asmussen and K. Heeböll-Nielsen, Isometric Muscle Strength of Adult Men and Women. Comm. Testing Observ. Inst. Danish Nat. Ass. Infantile Paralysis, Copenhagen, 11., 3–43 (1961).Google Scholar
- 4.R. Hellström, Body Build, Muscular Strength, and Certain Circulatory Factors in Military Personnel. Acta Med. Scand., Suppl. 371, 1–84 (1961).Google Scholar
- 5.G. Tornvall, Assessment of Physical Capabilities, with Special Reference to the Evaluation of Maximal Voluntary Isometric Muscle Strength and Maximal Working Capacity. Acta Physiol. Scand. 58, Suppl. 201, 1–102 (1963).Google Scholar
- 6.S. Robinson, Experimental Studies of Physical Fitness in Relation to Age. Arbeitsphysiol. 10, 251 (1938).Google Scholar
- 7.T. Sjöstrand, Die pathologische Physiologie der Korrelationen zwischen Herz und Gefäßsystem. Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Kreislaufforsch. 22, 143–157 (1956).Google Scholar
- 8.T. Sjöstrand, Relationen zwischen Bau und Funktion des Kreislaufsystems und ihre Veränderungen under pathologischen Bedingungen. Forum Cardiologicum (Mannheim-Waldhof: Boehringer & Söhne) 3, No. 3, 1–95 (1961).Google Scholar
- 9.E. Asmussen and M. Nielsen, Cardiac Output during Muscular Work and Its Regulation. Physiol. Rev. 35, 778–800 (1955).Google Scholar
- 12.C. G. Engström and G. Ström, Relationship between Physical Working Capacity and Heart Volume in Standing Position in Pilots and Applicants in the Swedish Air Force. Medd. Flyg- och Navalmed. Nämnd., Stockholm, 7, 36–38 (1958).Google Scholar
- 14.S. Bevegard, A. Holmgren and B. Jonsson, The Effect of Body Position on the Circulation at Rest and during Exercise, with Special Reference to the Influence on the Stroke Volume. Acta Physiol. Scand. 49, 279–298 (1960).Google Scholar
- 15.T. Sjöstrand, Changes in the Respiratory Organs of Workmen at an Ore Smelting Works. Acta Med. Scand., Suppl. 196, 687–699 (1947).Google Scholar
- 16.H. Wahlund, Determination of Physical Working Capacity. Acta Med. Scand., Suppl. 215 (1948).Google Scholar
- 17.W. von Döbeln, C. G. Engström and G. Ström, Physical Working Capacity of Swedish Air Force Pilots. J. Aviat. Med. 30, 162–166 (1959).Google Scholar
- 18.P. O. Astrand and I. Ryhming, A Nomogram for Calculation of Aerobic Capacity (Physical Fitness) from Pulse Rate during Sub-maximal Work. J. Appl. Physiol. 7, 218–221 (1954).Google Scholar
- 19.I. Astrand, Aerobic Work Capacity in Men and Women with Special Reference to Age. Acta Physiol. Scand. 49, Suppl. 169, 1–92 (I960).Google Scholar
- 21.P. O. Astrand, Experimental Studies of Physical Working Capacity in Relation to Sex and Age, p. 1–171. Copenhagen:Z E. Munksgaard, 1952.Google Scholar
- 22.P. O. Astrand, Human Physical Fitness with Special Reference to Sex and Age. Physiol. Rev. 36, 307–335 (1956).Google Scholar
- 23.E. Asmussen, K. Klausen, Sv. Molbech and E. Poulsen, Evaluation of Fitness for Work from Pulse Increase and Speed. Comm. Testing Observ. Inst. Danish Nat. Ass. Infantile Paralysis, Copenhagen, 9, 3–10 (1961).Google Scholar
- 24.W. von Döbeln, С. G. Engström, G. Malmstrom and G. Ström, Maximal Heart Rate and Maximal Working Capacity in Military Personnel Groups of Different Age. Manuscript in preparation (1963).Google Scholar
- 26.W. von Döbeln, С. G. Engström and G. Ström, Physical Training and Physical Working Capacity in Swedish Air Force Staff Personnel. Medd. Flyg- och Navalmed. Nämnd., Stockholm, 7, 34–35 (1958).Google Scholar
- 27.K. Linroth, Physical Working Capacity in Conscripts during Military Service. Acta Med. Scand., Suppl. 324, 1–127 (1957).Google Scholar
- 30.L. Linder, N. B. Nordlander, G. Ström and I. Werner, The Uppsala City and County Health Surveys 1961-1962. Manuscript in preparation (1963).Google Scholar
- 32.K. Linroth and G. Ström, Physical Profile in Military Personnel. Manuscript in preparation (1963).Google Scholar
- 33.I. Ryhming, A Modified Harvard Step Test for the Evaluation of Physical Fitness. Arbeitsphysiol. 15, 235–250 (1954).Google Scholar
- 35.P. O. Astrand and B. Saltin, Oxygen Uptake during the First Minutes of Heavy Muscular Exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 16, 971–976 (1961).Google Scholar
- 36.P. O. Astrand and B. Saltin, Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Heart Rate in Various Types of Muscular Activity. J. Appl. Physiol. 16, 977–981 (1961).Google Scholar
- 38.F. B. Petersen, The Effect of Training with Varying Work Intensities on Muscle Strength and on Circulatory Adaptation to Work. Comm. Testing Observ. Inst. Danish Nat. Ass. Infantile Paralysis, Copenhagen, 12, 3–11 (1962).Google Scholar
- 39.B. Lindegard, Body-build, Body-function, and Personality. Kungl. Fysiogr. Sällsk. Handl., Lund, 67, No. 4–10 (1956).Google Scholar
- 40.H. Ljunggren, Studies on Body Composition. Acta Endocrinol., Copenhagen, Suppl. 33, 1–58 (1957).Google Scholar
- 41.A. Holmgren, B. Jonsson, M. Levander, H. Linderholm, Т. Sjöstrand and G. Ström, Low Physical Working Capacity in Suspected Heart Cases Due to Inadequate Adjustment of Peripheral Blood Flow feldt, T. Sjöstrand and G. Ström, Physical Training of Patients with Vasoregulatory Asthenia. Acta Med. Scand. 158, 437–446 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar