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Methods For Somatic Classification Of Pilots According To Status Of Functional Muscular, Circulatory And Respiratory Capacities, And Possibilities Of Further Development During Training

  • Gunnar Ström

Abstract

In the Swedish Defence Forces, especially the Air Force, testing of the physical capability of personnel at different ages has been carried out systematically for a number of years. A full series of measurements would appraise (a) certain body dimensions, such as height, weight, adipose tissue and lean body mass, skeletal length and breadth, total heart volume in the horizontal body position, and total blood volume; (b) functional muscular capacity, judged from the maximal isometric force of contraction in representative muscle groups; (c) functional circulatory and respiratory capacities, judged from the ventilation, oxygen uptake, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood lactate concentration and Ecg reaction etc., under steady-state conditions during stepwise increasing work loads of submaximal intensity and under non-steady-state conditions during maximum work load; from the circulatory responses to orthostatic testing; and from vital capacity and maximal ventilatory volume; (d) some index of endurance for work of very long duration.

The results of the dynamic tests are evaluated as indices of maximal functional output and of maximal steady-state level. These indices of physical capability depend on the dimensional prerequisites as well as on the efficacy of the homeostatic regulative functions. The different indices are mutually interrelated, to a greater or lesser degree, in the normal individual. Appraisal of these interrelationships is an important part of the testing procedure.

Results from testing large personnel groups with some of the above-mentioned methods will be mentioned.

Physical training of the circulatory system results in e.g. increased circulatory dimensions and increased maximal functional output, and apparently also in a higher efficacy of the homeostatic regulation - the orthostatic circulatory changes are less pronounced, and a higher proportion of the maximal output can be used under conditions of steady state.

Results from longitudinal studies of physical capability in large personnel groups during periods of physical training will be mentioned.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunnar Ström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical PhysiologyUniversity Hospital UppsalaSweden

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