Adiabatic Demagnetization

  • D. de Klerk
Part of the Encyclopedia of Physics / Handbuch der Physik book series (HDBPHYS, volume 3 / 14)


The concept of “low temperature” has been different at different times. In the days when air was first liquefied by Cailletet and Pictet temperatures of 90 to 50° K were considered as extremely low. At the present time, however, since liquiefiers are commercially available, which give the possibility for relatively inexperienced people to liquefy helium in reasonable quantities, few cryogenics physicists would consider the temperature of liquid hydrogen (20 to 14° K) as being “low”. The liquid helium range extends from 4.2° K to roughly 1° K (see Sect. 2) and the aim of this article is the discussion of the region of still lower temperatures which, at the present time, is considered as “very low”.


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General references

  1. Allen, J. F., N. Kurti, K. Mendelssohn and F. Simon: Low temperature physics; four lectures. London: Pergamon Press 1952.Google Scholar
  2. Ambler, E., and R. P. Hudson: Rep. Progr. Physics 18, 251 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Casimir, H. B. G.: Magnetism and very low temperatures. Cambridge: University Press 1940.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Garrett, C. G. B.: Magnetic cooling. Cambridge (Mass.) 1954.Google Scholar
  5. Klerk, D. de: Thesis, Leiden 1948.Google Scholar
  6. Klerk, D. de, and M. J. Steenland: Progress in low temperature physics (ed. Gorter), p. 273. Amsterdam 1955.Google Scholar
  7. Steenland, M. J.: Thesis, Leiden 1952.Google Scholar
  8. Vleck, J. H. van: Ann. Inst. Poincaré 10, 57 (1947).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1956

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. de Klerk
    • 1
  1. 1.Scientific head-official at the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Docent of PhysicsLeiden UniversityLeidenNetherlands

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