Advertisement

Differentiation between Formation, in Plasma, of Anaphylatoxin and of Endogenous Pyrogen

  • W. Vogt
  • J. Lyncker
Chapter

Summary

Two anaphylatoxin-forming agents have been investigated with respect to possible pyrogenic effects: the AT forming fraction of cobra venom and agar.

The cobra venom fraction produced fever in rabbits. The pyrogenic principle is, however, not identical with the AT forming enzyme. Unlike the latter the pyrogenic principle is stable in acidic solution and destroyed by periodate. It may be a lipopolysaccharide.

Rabbit plasma, incubated with agar caused fever in rabbits. Agar also induced pyrogenic activity in saline after it had been incubated in that medium. The active principle proved to be agaropectin, the water-soluble acidic fraction of agar. Agarose was inert. In contrast, anaphylatoxin formation is induced by agarose, not by agaropectin.

In rabbit plasma, agaropectin induces the formation of an endogenous pyrogen. This principle can be separated from the agaropectin by DEAE cellulose chromatography. It is further distinguished from the latter by being heat-labile.

Besides being activated by different agents the processes of pyrogen and AT formation differ in their requirement for cations. AT formation is blocked by EDTA but pyrogen formation is not. It is concluded that in spite of similarities and common activation by endotoxins the processes of AT and pyrogen formation are different and independent events.

Key-Words

Anaphylatoxin Endotoxin Endogenous Pyrogen Agar Cobra Venom 

Schlüsselwörter

Anaphylatoxin Endotoxin Endogenes Pyrogen Agar Cobragift 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkinson, N.F., L.M. Liechtenstein, H. Gewurz, and S.E. Mergenhagen: The generation of anaphylatoxin by interaction of endotoxin and guinea-pig serum. Fed. Proc. 27, 316 (1968).Google Scholar
  2. Dyer, J.R.: Use of periodate oxidations in biochemical analysis. Meth. biochem. Anal. 3, 111–152(1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Friedberger, E., u. S. Mita: Über Anaphylaxie. XVIII: Die anaphylaktische Fieberreaktion. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 10, 216–281 (1911).Google Scholar
  4. Giertz, H., u. F. Hahn: Makromolekulare Histaminliberatoren. C. Das Anaphylatoxin. In: Heffters Handbuch der Pharmakologie, Erg.-Band 18/1, S. 521. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966.Google Scholar
  5. Grant, R., and W.J. Whalen: Latency of pyrogen fever. Appearance of a fast-acting pyrogen in the blood of febrile animals and in plasma incubated with bacterial pyrogen. Amer. J. Physiol. 173, 47–54 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Greisman, S.E.: Activation of histamine-releasing factor in normal rat plasma by E. coli endotoxin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 103, 628–632 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haining, C.G.: Activation of rabbit serum protease by dextran sulphate. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 11, 107–110 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hinshaw, L.B., J.A. Vick, C.H. Carlson, and Y.-L. Fan: Role of histamine in endotoxin shock. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 104, 379–381 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Netzer, W., u. W. Vogt: Anaphylatoxinbildung durch pyrogenes Lipopoly-saccharid. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 248, 261–268 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. Osler, A.G., H.G. Randall, and Z. Ovary: Studies on the mechanism of hyper-sensitivity phenomena. III. The participation of complement in the formation of anaphylatoxin. J. exp. Med. 110, 311–339 (1959).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rothschild, A.M., and L.A. Gascon: Sulphuric esters of polysaccharides as activators of a bradykinin-forming system in plasma. Nature (Lond.) 212, 1364 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schwoerer, D.: Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen des anaphylatoxin-bildenden Systems im Plasma verschiedener Tierarten. Thesis, Göttingen 1966.Google Scholar
  13. Ungar, G., and S.H. Mist: Release of serum fibrinolysin by specific antigen, peptone, and certain polysaccharides. J. exp. Med. 90, 39–51 (1949).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. — T. Yamura, J.B. Isola, and S. Kobrin: Further studies on the role of proteases in the allergic reaction. J. exp. Med. 113, 359–380 (1961).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Vogt, W.: Preparation and some properties of anaphylatoxin from hog serum. Biochem. Pharmacol. 17, 727–733 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. —, u. G. Schmidt: Abtrennung des anaphylatoxinbildenden Prinzips aus Cobra-gift von anderen Giftkomponenten. Experientia (Basel) 20, 207–208 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. — Formation of anaphylatoxin in rat plasma, a specific enzymic process. Biochem. Pharmacol. 15, 905–914 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Weil, M.H., and W.W. Spink: A comparison of shock due to endotoxin with anaphylactic shock. J. Lab. clin. Med. 50, 501–515 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. White, L.R., and R.G. Petersdorf: Species-specificity of endogenous pyrogen in serum. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 114, 567–571 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wiedersheim, M., W. Hertlein, E. Husemann u. R. Lötterle: Über die Pharmakologie von wasserlöslichen Polysacchariden und Polysaccharid-derivaten. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 217, 107–129 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Vogt
    • 1
  • J. Lyncker
    • 1
  1. 1.Abt. Biochemische PharmakologieMax-Planck-Institut für experimentelle MedizinGöttingenDeutschland

Personalised recommendations