Advertisement

Der Internist pp 717-726 | Cite as

Zytokine in der klinischen Anwendung

  • P. Meyer
  • K. Wilms
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Experimentelle Befunde mit Immunmodulatoren vom Typ der Zytokine (Interferone, Tumor Necrosis Factor) haben zu großen Hoffnungen Anlaß gegeben für die Krebstherapie der Zukunft. Die bisher vorliegenden Erfahrungen und Befunde aus dem klinischen Bereich haben jedoch sehr inhomogene Ergebnisse geliefert. Daher ist es notwendig, wie im nachfolgenden Artikel geschehen, eine Bilanz des aktuellen Wissensstandes zu ziehen.

Schlüsselwörter und Abkürzungen

Erythropoietin (EPO) Granulozyten-Koloniestimulierender Faktor (G-CSF) Granulozyten-Makrophagen-Koloniestimulierender Faktor (GM-CSF) Humanes Immun-defizienz Virus (HIV) Interleukin (IL) Interferon (IFN) Lymphoki-naktivierte Killerzellen (LAK-Zellen) natürliche Killerzellen (NK-Zellen) Tumornekrosefaktor (TNF) 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Antman K, Griffin J, Elias A, Socinski M, Whitley M, Ryan L, Cannistra S, Frei E, Schnipper L (1988) Effect of rGM-CSF on chemotherapy induced myelosuppression in sarcoma patients. Proc ASCO 7:619Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asano Y, Shibuya T, Okamura S, Yamaga S, Ntsuka T, Niho Y (1987) Effect of human recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and native granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on clonogenic leukemic blast cells. Cancer Res 47:5647–5648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Balkwill F, Burke F, Talbot D, Tavernier J, Osborne R, Nayler S, Durbin H, Fiers W (1987) Evidence for tumor necrosis factor/cachectin production in cancer. Lancet II: 1229–036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 3a.
    Begley G, Metcalf D, Nicola NA (1987) Purified colony stimulating factors (G-CSF and GM-CSF) induce differentiation in human HL 60 cells with suppression of clonognicity. Int J Cancer 39:99–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    Belldegrun A, Webb DE, Ausin III HA, Steinberg SM, White DE, Linehan WM, Rosenberg SA (1987) Effect of Interleukin-2 on renal function in patients receiving immunotherapy of advanced cancer. Ann Intern Med 106:817–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    Bergsagel DE, Haas RH, Messner HA (1986) Interferon alfa-2b in the treatment of chronic granulocytic leukaemia. Semin Oncol 13:29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    Beutler B, Cerami A. Cachectin (1987) More than a tumor necrosis factor. N Engl J Med 316:379–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    Blick M, Sherwin SA, Rosenblum M, Gutterman J (1987) Phase I study of recombinant tumor necrosis factor in cancer patients. Cancer Res 47:2986–2989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Borradori L, Knellwolf M, Morell A (1987) Interleukin-2 (IL2): molekulare, physio- und pathophysiologische Grundlagen und mögliche Bedeutung für die Klinik. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 117:945–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Brandt SJ, Peters WP, Atwater SK, Kurtzberg J, Borowitz MJ, Jones RB, Shpall EJ, Bast RC, Gilbert JC, Oette DH (1988) Effect of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor on hematopoietic reconstitution after high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 318:869–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Burgess AW, Begley CG, Johnson GR, Lopez AF, Willamson DJ, Mermod JJ, Simpson RJ, Schmitz A, DeLamarter JF (1987) Purification and properties of bacterially synthesized human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Blood 69:43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Cantell K, Hirvonen S (1977) Preparation of human leukocyte interferon for clinical use. Tex Rep Biol Med 35:138–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Cantrell MA, Anderson D, Cerretti DP, Price V, McKereghan K, Tushinski RJ, Mochizuki DY, Larsen A, Grabstein K, Gillis S, Cosman D (1985) Cloning, sequence, and expression of a human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci 82:6250–6254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Castaigne S, Sigaux F, Cantell K, Falcoff E, Boirin M, Flandrin G, Degos L (1986) Interferon alpha in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. Cancer 57:1681–1684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Chapman PB, Lester TJ, Casper ES, Gabrilove JL, Wong GY, Kempin SJ, Gold PJ, Welt S, Warren RS, Starnes HF, Sherwin SA, Old LJ, Oettgen HF (1987) Clinical pharmacology of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol 5:1942–1951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Cheng GYM, Kelleher CA, Miyauchi J, Wang C, Wong G, Clark SC, McCulloch EA, Minden MD (1988) Structure and expression of genes of GM-CSF and G-CSF in blast cells from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 71:204–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Clark J, Longo D, Smith J, Urba W, Miller R, Ruscetti F, Hursey J, Steis R (1988) Phase I trial of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) in cancer patients (Pts.). Proc ASCO 7:622Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Cordingley FT, Hoffbrand AV, Heslop HE, Turner M, Bianchi A, Reittie JE, Vyakanram A, Meager A (1988) Tumor necrosis factor as an autocrine tumour growth factor for chronic B-cell malignancies. Lancet I:969–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Creaven PJ, Plager JE, Dupere S, Huben RP, Takita H, Mittelmann A, Proefrock A (1987) Phase I clinical trial for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 20:137–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Denicoff KD, Rubinow DR, Papa MZ, Simpson C, Scipp CA, Lotze MT, Chang AE, Rosenstein D, Rosenberg SA (1987) The neuropsychiatric effects of treatment with interleukin-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Ann Intern Med 107:293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Dinarello CA, Mier JW (1987) Current concepts : Lymphokines. N Engl J Med 317:940–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Donahue RE, Wang EA, Stone DK, Kamen R, Wong GG, Sehgal PK, Nathan DG, Clark SC (1986) Stimulation of haematopoiesis in primates by continuous infusion of recombinant human GM-CSF. Nature 321:872–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Donahue RE, Wang EA, Stone DK, Kamen R, Wong GG, Sehgal PK, Nathan DG, Clark SC (1986) Stimulation of haematopoiesis in primates by continuous infusion of recombinant human GM-CSF. Nature 321:872–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Ehman WC, Silber R (1986) Recombinant alpha-2 interferon is an effective agent in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia without prior splenectomy. Am J Med 80:1111–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Ernstoff MS, Gallicchio V, Kirkwood JM (1985) Analysis of granulocyte macrophage progenitor cells in patients treated with recombinant interferon alpha-2. Am J Med 79:167–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Eschbach JW, Egrie JC, Downing MR, Browne JK, Adamson JW (1987) Correction of the anemia of end-stage renal disease with recombinant human erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 316:73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Ettinghausen SE, Moore JG, White DE, Platanias L, Young NS, Rosenberg SA (1987) Hematologic effects of immunotherapy with lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2 in cancer patients. Blood 69:1654–1660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Foon K, Maluish AE, Abrams PG, Wrightington S, Stevenson HC, Alarif A, Fer MF, Overton WR, Poole M, Schnipper EF, Jaffe ES, Herberman RB (1986) Recombinant leukocyte A interferon therapy for advanced hairy cell leukemia. Am J Med 80:351–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Foon KA (1987) Biological approaches to cancer therapy. Haematol Transfus 31:103–109Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Fransen L, Muller R, Marmenout A, Tavernier J, Van der Heyden J, Kawashima E, Chollet A, Tizard R, Van Heuverswyn H, Van Vliet A, Ruysschaert MR, Fiers W (1985) Molecular cloning of mouse tumor necrosis factor cDNA and its eukaryotic expression. Nucleic Acids Res 13:4417–4429PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Fujisawa M, Kobayashi Y, Okabe T, Takaku E, Komatsu Y, Itoh S (1986) Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces granulocytosis in vivo. Jpn J Cancer Res 77:866–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Gabrilove JL, Jakubowski, Scheer H, Sternberg C, Wong G, Grous J, Yagoda A, Fain K, Moore MAS, Clarson B, Oettgen HF, Alton K, Weite K, Souza L (1988) Effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on neutropenia and associated morbidity due to chemotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. N Engl J Med 318:1414–1422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Ganser A, Voelkers B, Greher J, Walther F, Hoelzer D (1988) Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes — a phase I/II trial. Onkologie 11:53–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Gaspari A A, Lotze MT, Rosenberg SA, Stern JB, Katz SI (1987) Dermatologic changes associated with Interleukin 2 administration. JAMA 258:1624–1629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Gastl G, Aulitzky Q, Tilg H, Hausmanninger H, Seewann HL, Coser C, Prinoth P, Huber C (1987) Dose related effectiveness of alpha interferon in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blut 54:251–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Gastl G, Aulitzky W, Leiter E, Flener R, Huber C (1986) Effect of interferon on LGL and NK activity in hairy cell leukemia. Blut 52:273–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Gillis S, Conlon PJ, Cosman D, Hopp TP, Dower SK, Price V, Mochizuki DY, Urdal DL (1986) Lymphokines: from conjecture to the clinic. Semin Oncol 13:218–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Golomb HM, Fefer A, Golde DW, Ozer H, Portlock C, Silber R, Rappeport J, Ratain MJ, Thompson J, Bonnern EM, Spiegel RJ, Tensen L, Burke JS, Vardiman W (1987) Sequential evaluation of alpha-2b-interferon in 128 patients with hairy cell leukemia. Semin Oncol 14: [Suppl 2] 13–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Gough MM, Gough J, Metcalf D, Kelso A, Grail D, Nicola NA, Burgess AW, Dunn AR (1984) Molecular cloning of c-DNA encoding a murine hemopoietic growth regulator, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Nature 309:763–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Grimm EA (1986) Human lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK cells) as a potential immunotherapeutic modality. Biochim Biophys 865:267–279Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Groopman JE, Mitsuyasu RT, DeLeo MJ, Oette DH, Golde DW (1987) Effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on myelopoiesis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 317:593–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Hagberg H, Alm G, Bjoerkholm M, Glimelius B, Killander A, Simonsson B, Sundstroem C, Aehre A (1985) Alpha interferon treatment of patients with hairy-cell leukaemia. Scand J Haematol 35:66–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Haranaka K, Sakurai A, Satomi N (1987) Antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in combination with hyperthermia, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. J Biol Response Mod 6:379–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Hehlmann R, Anger B, Messerer D, Zankovich R, Bergmann L, Kolb HJ, Meyer P, Essers U, Queisser U, Vaupel H, Walther F, Hossfeld DK, Zimmermann R, Heiss F, Mende S, Tigges FJ, Kleeberg UR, Pralle H, Kayser W, Zimmermann R, Tichelli A, Faulhaber JD, Räth U, Schubert H, Bross K, Schlag R, Schmid L, Weißenfels I, Heinze B, Georgii A, Queißer W, Heimpel H (1988) Randomized study on the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase with busulfan versus hydroxyurea versus interferon-alpha. Blut 56:87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Hoang T, Nara N, Wong G, Clark S, Minden MD, McCulloch EA (1986) Effects of recombinant GM-CSF on the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 68:313–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Huebner K, Isobe M, Croce CM, Golde DW, Kaufman SE, Gasson JC (1985) The human gene encoding GMCSF is at 5q21–q32, the chromosome region deleted in the 5q-anomaly. Science 230:1282–1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Itri LM, Campion M, Dennin RA (1987) Incidence and clinical significance of neutralizing antibodies in patients receiving interferon alfa-2b by intramuscular injection. Cancer 59:668–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Jacobs AD, Naiem F, Champlin RE, Golde DW (1985) Toxicity and bone marrow response of patients with hairy cell leukemia treated with biosynthetic (recombinant) a-2-interferon. Blut 50:33–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Jacobs K, Shoemaker C, Rudersdorf R, Neill S, Kaufmann RJ, Mufson A, Seehra J, Jones S, Hewick R, Fritsch E, Kawakita M, Shimizu T, Miyake T (1985) Isolation and characterisation of genomic and c-DNA clones of human erythropoietin. Nature 313:806–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Jacobs SK, Konrblith PL, Kantrowitz AB, Greenwald ES, Wiernik PH (1987) Letter N Engl Med 317:962Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Jansen J, Hermans J (1981) For the collaborative study group : splenectomy in hairy cell leukemia: a retrospective multicenter analysis. Cancer 47:2066–2076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Jones GJ, Itri LM (1986) Safety and tolerance of recombinant interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A) in cancer patients. Cancer 57:1709–1715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Kaushansky K, O Hara PJ, Berkner K, Segal GM, Hagen FS, Adamson JW (1986) Genomic cloning, characterisation, and multilineage growth-promoting activity of human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Natl Acad Sci USA 83:3101–3105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Kehrl JH, Miller A, Fauci AS (1987) Effect of TNF a on mitogen activated human B-cells. J Exp Med 166:786–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Kelleher C, Miyauchi J, Wong G, Clark S, Minden MD, McCulloch EA (1987) Synergism between recombinant growth factors, GM-CSF, and G-CSF, acting on the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 69:1498–1503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Kimura K, Taguchi T, Urushizaki I, Ohno R, Abe O, Furue H, Hattori T, Ichihashi H, Inoguchi K, Majima H, Niitani H, Ota K, Saito T, Suga S, Suzuoki Y, Wakui A, Yamada K (1987) Phase I study of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 20:223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Kolata G (1987) Clinical promise with new hormones. Science 236:517–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Kolbe K, Mertelsmann R (1987) Erythropoietin: Regulator der Blutbildung. Die gelben Hefte 26:166–172Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Kradin RL, Boyle LA, Preffer FI, Callahan RJ, Barlai-Kovach M, Strauss HW, Dubinett S, Kurnick JT (1987) Tumor-derived interleukin-2-depen-dent lymphocytes in adoptive immunotherapy of lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 24:76–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Krigel RL (1987) Interleukins, interferons, and tumor necrosis factor in cancer treatment. AAOHN Journal 35:159–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Le Beau MM, Westbrook CA, Diaz MO, Larson RA, Rowley JD, Gasson JC, Golde DW, Sherr CJ (1986) Evidence for the involvement of GM-CSF and FMS in the deletion (5q) in myeloid disorders. Science 231:984–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Le Beau MM, Lemons RS, Carrino JJ, Pettenati MJ, Souza LM, Diaz MO, Rowley JD (1987) Chromosomal localization of the human G-CSF gene to 17q11 proximal to the breakpoint of the (15; 17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia 1:795–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Lee F, Yokota T, Otsuka T, Gemmell L, Larson N, Luh J, Arai K, Rennick D (1985) Isolation of cDNA for a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by functional expression in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 82:4360–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Lin FK, Suggs S, Lin CH, Browne JK, Smalling R, Egrie JC, Chen KK, Fox GM, Martin F, Stabinsky Z, Badrawi SM, Lai PH, Goldwasser E (1985) Cloning and expression of the human erythropoietin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci 82:7580–7584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Lotze MT, Chang AE, Scipp CA, Simpson C, Vetto JT, Rosenberg SA (1986) High dose recombinant Interleukin 2 in the treatment of patients with disseminated cancer. JAMA 256:3117–3124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Lotze MT, Custer MC, Rosenberg SA (1986) Intraperitoneal administration of interleukin-2 in patients with cancer. Arch Surg 121:1373–1379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Lotze MT, Grimm E, Mazumder A, Strausser JL, Rosenberg SA (1981) In vitro growth of cytotoxic human lymphocytes: IV. Lysis of fresh and cultured autologous tumor by lymphocytes cultured in T cell growth factor (TCGF). Cancer Res 41:4420–4425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Lotze MT, Matory YL, Rayner AA, Ettinghausen SE, Vetto JT, Scipp CA, Rosenberg SA (1986) Clinical effects and toxicity of interleukin-2 in patients with cancer. Cancer 58:2764–2772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Marcus SL, Dutcher JP, Paietta E, Ciobanu N, Strauman J, Wiernik PH, Hutner SH, Frank O, Baker H (1987) Severe hypovitaminosis C occuring as the result of adoptive immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin 2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Cancer Res 47:4028–4212Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Marolda R, Belli F, Prada A, Villani F, Gambacorti-Passerini C, Galazka A, Parmiani G, Cascinelli N (1987) A phase I study of recombinant interleukin 2 in melanoma patients. Toxicity and clinical effects. Tumori 73:575–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Mayer P, Lam C, Obenaus H, Liehl E, Besemer J (1987) Recombinant human GM-CSF induces leukocytosis and activates peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils in nonhuman primates. Blood 70:206–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Merigan TC (1988) Human interferon as a therapeutic agent. N Engl J Med 318:1458–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Metcalf D, Begley CG, Johnson GR, Nicola NA, Vadas MA, Lopez AF, Willamson DJ, Wong GG, Clark SC, Wang EA (1986) Biologic properties in vitro of a recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood 67:37–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Miyauchi J, Kelleher CA, Yang Y, Wong GG, Clark SC, Minden MD, Minkin S, McCulloch EA (1987) The effects of three recombinant growth factors, IL-3, GM-CSF, and G-CSF, on the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia maintained in short-term suspension culture. Blood 70:657–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Morstyn G, Souza LM, Keech J, Sheridan W, Campbell L, Alton NK, Green M, Metcalf D, Fox R (1988) Effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on neutropenia induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy. Lancet I:667–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Munker R, Koeffler HPh (1987) Tumor necrosis factor: recent advances. Klin Wochenschr 65:345–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Ymazaki T, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M (1986) Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Nature 319:415–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Nara N, Murohashi I, Suzuki T, Yamashita Y, Maruyama Y, Aoki N, Tanikawa S, Onozawa Y (1988) Effects of purified human native granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on proliferation of blast progenitors in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Am J Hematol 72:84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Niederle N, Kloke O, Becher R, Beelen DW, Schmidt CG (1986) a-2-Interfe-ron: erste Behandlungsergebnisse bei der chronischen myeloischen Leukämie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 111:767–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Oladipupo-Williams CK, Svet-Moldavskaya I, Vilcek J (1981) Inhibitory effects of human leukocyte and fibroblast interferons on normal and chronic myelogenous leukemic granulocytic progenitor cells. Oncology 38:356–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Pennica D, Nedwin GE, Hayflick JS, Seeburg PH, Derynck R, Palladino MA, Johr WJ, Aggarwal BB, Goeddel DV (1984) Human tumour necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin. Nature 321:724–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Platzer E, Kalden JR (1987) Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Blut 54:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Porzsolt F (1986) Primary treatment of hairy cell leukemia : should IFN-therapy replace splenectomy? Blut 52:265–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Porzsolt F, Thomä J, Unsöld M, Wolf W, Obert HJ, Kubanek B, Heimpel H (1985) Platelet-adjusted IFN dosage in the treatment of advanced hairy cell leukemia. Blut 51:73–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Pralle H, Bartel A, Boedewadt-Radzun S, Bross K, Bruhn HD, Doerken B, Dress N, Essers U, Fuhr H, Gamm H, Ho AD, Parwaresch RM, Papendick U, Asshoff D, Bremer K, Euler H, Fischer Th, Ganser A, Vonnegut A, Hayungs J, Heinen U, Heyll A, Kraft J, Neubaer A, Nowicki L, Pfannenschmidt G, Pflüger K, Saß R, Schmidt W, Schuster D, Schober I (1988) Interferon a für die Therapie der HCL. Onkologie 1:44–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Quesada JR, Reuben J, Manning JT, Hersh EM, Gutterman JU (1984) Alpha interferon for induction of remission in hairy cell leukemia. N Engl J Med 310:15–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Quesada JR, Gutterman JU, Hersh EM (1986) Treatment of hairy cell leukemia with alpha interferons. Cancer 57:1678–1680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Ratain MJ, Golomb HM, Vardiman JW, Vokes EE, Jacobs RH, Daly K (1985) Treatment of hairy cell leukemia with recombinant alpha-2-interferon. Blood 65:644–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Rosenberg SA (1987) Letter. N Engl J Med 317:962Google Scholar
  90. 88a.
    Rosenberg SA (1986) The adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using the transfer of activated lymphoid cells and interleukin-2-. Semin Oncol 13:200–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Rosenberg SA, Grimm EA, McGrogan M, Doyle M, Kawasaki E, Koths K, Mark DF (1984) Biological activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 produced in Escherichia coli. Science 223:1412–1492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT, Muul LM, Chang AE, Avis FP, Leitman S, Linehan M, Robertson CN, Lee RE, Rubin JT, Scipp CA, Simpson C, White DW (1987) A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone. N Engl J Med 316:889–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 91.
    Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT, Muul LM, Leitman S, Chang AE, Ettinghausen SE, Matory YL, Skibber JM, Shiloni E, Vetto JT, Scipp C, Simpson C, Richert CM (1985) Observation on the systemic administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2 to patients with metastatic cancer. N Engl J Med 315:1485–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Schäfer RM, Kürner B, Zech M, Krahn R, Heidland A (1988) Therapie der renalen Anaemie mit rekombinantem humanem Erythropoietin. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 113:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Sherman ML, Spriggs DR, Arthur KA, Imamura K, Frei E, Kufe DW (1988) Recombinant tumor necrosis factor administered as a five-day continous infusion in cancer patients : phase I toxicity and effects on lipid metabolism. J Clin Oncol 6:344–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    Shimamura M, Kobayashi Y, Yuo A, Urabe A, Okabe T, Komatsu Y, Itoh S, Takaku F (1987) Effect of human recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on hematopoietic injury in mice induced by 5-Fluorouracil. Blood 69:353–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    Shimizu K, Okamoto Y, Miyao Y, Yamada M, Ushio Y, Hayakawa T, Ikeda H, Mogami H (1987) Adoptive immunotherapy of human meningeal gliomatosis and carcinomatosis with LAK cells and recombinant interleukin-2. J Neurosurg 66:519–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Shirai T, Yamaguchi H, Ito H, Todd CW, Wallace RB (1985) Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene for human tumor necrosis factor. Nature 313:803–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    Socinski MA, Elias A, Schnipper L, Cannistra SA, Antman KH, Griffin JD (1988) Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor expands the circulating haemopotietic progenitor cell compartment in man. Lancet I:1194–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 98.
    Sosman JA, Kohler PC, Hank J, Moore KH, Bechhofer R, Storer B, Sondel PM (1988) Repetitive weekly cycles of recombinant human interleukin-2 : responses of renal carcinoma with acceptabele toxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 80:60–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsebo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen KK, Barendt J, Platzer E, Moore MAS, Mertelsmann R, Weite K (1986) Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science 232:61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    Spiegel RJ (1987) The alpha interferons: Clinical Overview. Semin Oncol 14:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    Steinmetz HT, Pfreundschuh M, Schaadt M, Diehl V (1988) Klinische Erfahrungen mit Tumornekrosefaktor. Zuckschwerdt, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Steis RG, Smith JW, Urba WJ, Clark JW, Itri LM, Evans LM, Schoenberger C, Longo DL (1988) Resistance to recombinant interferon alfa-2a in hairy cell leukemia associated with neutralizing anti-interferon antibodies. N Engl J Med 318:1409–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 103.
    Stiehm ER, Kronenberg LH, Rosenblatt HM, Bryson Y, Merigan TC (1982) Interferon: immunobiology and clinical significance. Ann Intern Med 96:80–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Swedlund AP, Gorelick FS (1987) Ca-chectin, tumor necrosis factor, and anorexia. J Clin Gastroenterol 9:256–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Taguchi T (1986) A phase I study of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHu-TNF: PT-050). Jpn J Cancer Chemother 13:3491–3497Google Scholar
  108. 106.
    Talpaz M, Katarjian H, McCredie K, Trujillo J, Keating M, Gutterman JU (1987) Therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Cancer 59:664–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 107.
    Talpaz M, Katarjian HM, McCredie K, Trujillo JM, Keating M, Gutterman JU (1986) Hematologic remission and cytogenetic improvement induced by recombinant human interferon alpha-A in chronic myelogenous leukemia. N Engl J Med 314:1065–1069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Talpaz M, McCredie KB, Mavligit GM, Gutterman JU (1983) Leukocyte interferon-induced myeloid cytoreduc-tion in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood 62:689–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Talpaz M, Trujillo JM, Hittelman WN, Keating MJ, Gutterman JU (1985) Suppression of clonal evolution in two chronic myelogenous leukaemia patients treated with leukocyte interferon. Br J Haematol 60:619–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Taniguchi T, Matsui H, Fujita T, Takaoka C, Kashima N, Hoshimoto R, Hamuro J (1983) Structure and expression of a cloned cDNA for human interleukin-2. Nature 302:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 111.
    Thompson JA, Brady J, Kidd P, Fefer A (1985) Recombinant alpha-2 interferon in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. Cancer Treat Rep 69:791–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Tomonaga M, Golde DW, Gasson JC (1986) Biosynthetic (recombinant) human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulation factor: effect on normal bone marrow and leukemia cell lines. Blood 67:31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Trown PW, Wills RJ, Kamm JJ (1986) The preclinical development of Rofer-on-A. Cancer 57:1648–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 114.
    Vadhan-Raj S, Keating M, LeMaistre A, Hittelman W, McCredie K, Trujillo JM, Broxmexer H, Henney C, Gutterman JU (1987) Effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. N Engl J Med 317:1545–1552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Vetto JT, Papa MZ, Lotze MT, Chang AE, Rosenberg SA (1987) Reduction of toxicity of interleukin-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells in humans by the administration of corticosteroids. J Clin Oncol 5:496–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    Wang AM, Creasey AA, Lodner MB, Lin LS, Strickler J, Van Arsdel JN, Yamamoto R, Mark DF (1985) Molecular cloning of the complementary DNA for human tumor necrosis factor. Science 228:149–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 117.
    Weinstein A, Bujak D, Mittelman A, Davidian M (1987) Erythema nodosum in a patient with renal cell carcinoma treated with Interleukin 2 and lymphokine activated killer cells. JAMA 258:3120–3121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 118.
    Weite K, Bonilla MA, Gillio AP, Boone TC, Potter GK, Gabrilove JL, Moore MAS, O’Reilly RJ, Souza LM (1987) Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. J Exp Med 165:941–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 119.
    West WH, Tauer KW, Yannelli JR, Marshall GD, Orr DW, Thurman GB, Oldham RK (1987) Constant-infusion recombinant interleukin-2 in adoptive immunotherapy of advanced cancer. N Engl J Med 316:898–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 120.
    Winearls CG, Pippard M, Downing, MR Oliver DO, Reid C, Cotes PM (1986) Effect of human erythropoietin derived from recombinant DNA on the anaemia of patients maintained by chronic haemodialysis. Lancet I1:1175–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    Wong GG, Witek JS, Temple PA, Wilkens KM, Leary AC, Luxenburg DP, Jones SS, Brown EL, Kay RM, Orr EC, Shoemaker C, Golde DW, Kaufman RJ, Hewick RM, Wang EA, Clark SC (1985) Human GM-CSF: Molecular cloning of the complementary DNA and purification of the natural and recombinant proteins. Science 228 MIOSISGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Worman CP, Catovsky D, Bevan PC, Camba L, Joyner M, Green PJ, Williams HJH, Bottomley JM, Gordon-Smith EC, Cawley JC (1985) Interferon is effective in hairy-cell leukaemia. Br J Haematol 60:759–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 123.
    Yasumoto K, Miyazaki K, Nagashima A, Ishida T, Kuda T, Yano T, Sugimachi K, Nomoto K (1987) Induction of lymphokine-activated killer cells by intrapleural instillations of recombinant interleukin-2 in patients with malignant pleurisy due to lung cancer. Cancer Res 47:2184–2187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 124.
    Yoffe G, Blick M, Katarjian H, Spitzer G, Gutterman J, Talpaz M (1987) Molecular analysis of interferon-induced suppression of Philadelphia chromosome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood 69:961–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Young DC, Griffin JD (1986) Autocrine secretion of GM-CSF in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 68:1178–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 126.
    Ziegler EJ (1988) Tumor necrosis factor in humans. N Engl J Med 318:1533–1535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 127.
    Zins B, Drueke T, Zingraff J (1986) Erythropoietin treatment in anaemic patients on haemodialysis. Lancet I1:1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Meyer
    • 1
  • K. Wilms
    • 1
  1. 1.Medizinische PoliklinikUniversität WürzburgWürzburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations