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Toxikologie von Methyltertiärer-Butylether (MTBE) als Bestandteil des Otto-Motoren-Kraftstoffes

  • Irene Tesseraux
  • G. Koss
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Methyl-tertiärer-Butylether (MTBE) erhöht die Klopffestigkeit des Otto-Motoren-Kraftstoffes und wird in den USA seit 1979 dem Kraftstoff als Ersatz für Blei zugesetzt. Eine weitere Anwendung für MTBE als Kraftstoffzusatz ergab sich durch das novellierte amerikanische Luftreinhaltegesetz (Clean Air Act 1990). Danach wurde festgelegt, in Regionen mit Kraftfahrzeug-bedingten hohen Kohlenmonoxid-Immissionen, insbesondere in den Wintermonaten, oxygenierte Otto-Kraftstoffe zu verwenden, die vollständiger verbrennen und somit die Kohlenmonoxid-Emissionen reduzieren. Derartiger Kraftstoff muß durchschnittlich 2,7 Gew.-% Sauerstoff bzw. 15 Vol.-% MTBE enthalten. Er wird in den USA „oxygenated gasoline“ oder „oxyfuel“ genannt. In Regionen mit Ozon-Grenzwertüberschreitungen sind ganzjährig Maßnahmen erforderlich, um die Emission von Ozon-Vorläufern (NOX und VOC) zu reduzieren. Zu diesem Zweck wurden „reformulierte“ Kraftstoffe („reformulated fuel“), die Ethanol oder zumeist MTBE (11%) enthalten, eingeführt.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irene Tesseraux
    • 1
  • G. Koss
    • 1
  1. 1.Behörde für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales, Amt für Gesundheit, Referat Umweltbezogener GesundheitsschutzHamburgDeutschland

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