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Malariaschnelltests

  • Gerd-Dieter Burchard
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die Untersuchung von Giemsa-gefärbten Blutausstrichen erlaubt es, die Diagnose einer Malaria mit hoher Sensitivität zu stellen. Die Anfertigung und Beurteilung parasitologischer Blutausstriche erfordert allerdings viel Erfahrung. Es sind deshalb andere diagnostische Methoden entwickelt worden und seit kurzem kommerziell verfügbar. Diese Methoden beruhen auf dem Nachweis von Antigenen im Blut. Histidine-rich protein 2, ein für Plasmodium falciparum spezifisches Antigen wird im ParaSight®-FTest (Becton Dickinson) und im ICT Malaria Pf® Test (ICT Diagnostics) nachgewiesen. Parasitenspezifische Laktatdehydrogenase bildet die Grundlage eines weiteren Tests, der von der Firma Flow Inc entwickelt wurde. Diese Malariaschnelltests wurden in einer Reihe von Studien evaluiert, Sensitivität und Spezifität liegen bei 90 bis 100%. Die Sensitivität ist bei geringer Parasitendichte niedriger. Allerdings wurden falsch-negative Testausfälle auch bei Patienten mit hoher Parasitämie beschrieben.

Schlüsselwörter

Malaria Schnelltests Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP 2) Plasmodien-spezifische Laktatdehydrogenase (pLDH) 

Rapid tests for the diagnosis of malaria

Summary

The microscopic examination of Giemsastained blood films for the diagnosis of malaria is a highly sensitive technique. However, the expertise required is a major disadvantage. Recently, methods not dependent on microscopy have become commercially available. The use of an antigen-capture assay for the detection of histidine-rich protein 2, an antigen specific for Plasmodium falciparum, forms the basis of the ftaraSight®-F (Becton Dickinson) and the ICT Malaria Pf® test (ICT Diagnostics). Parasite lactate dehydrogenase is the basis of another immunographic dipstick assay developed by Flow Inc. These currently available assays have been evaluated in a number of trials giving sensitivities and specificities of 90–100%. A decreased sensitivity is found in cases with low parasitemia. However, false-negative results have also been reported in patients with high parasite densities.

Key words

Malaria Rapid tests Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP 2) Parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerd-Dieter Burchard
    • 1
  1. 1.Bernhard-Nocht-Institut für TropenmedizinHamburgDeutschland

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