The modern agricultural practices such as the multiple cropping of high yielding varieties and the use of fertilizers depend very much on the irrigated water. Insufficient irrigation supply can drastically reduce the yields while excess irrigation and improper use may lead to waterlogging and excessive accumulation of salts. Therefore a properly designed water distribution system is essential for easy and efficient irrigation. An irrigation distribution system may consist of the canals, structures for distribution of water to various fields and other cross-drainage structures such as culverts, siphons etc. The canals may comprise of main, branch, secondary, tertiary canals and field channels. In such a complex system, the computation of water surface elevations and the corresponding discharges at various locations within the system can be very tedious and time consuming especially when the design calculations have to be repeated for all possible alternatives. But the exercise is an essential component in the design of the irrigation system.
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