Development of Wind Turbines

  • Zbigniew Lubosny
Part of the Power Systems book series (POWSYS)


The utilization of wind energy has a very long tradition. Some historians suggest that wind turbines (windmills) were known over 3000 years ago. They also maintain that remains of stone windmills were discovered in Egypt near Alexandria. But the first reliable information, from historical sources, points to the utilization of windmills in 640 AD, on the Persian—Afghan border. These Persian windmills were characterized by a vertical axis of rotation. The windmills were usually used for milling grain.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zbigniew Lubosny
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. Electrical Power SystemsGdansk University of TechnologyGdanskPoland

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