Advertisement

Diagnostik

  • M. Rutishauser
  • T. Nicolai
  • M. Zach
  • W. Leupold
  • H. von der Hardt
  • R. Wönne
  • J. Riedler
  • H. Lindemann
  • W. Gruber
  • M. Gappa
  • U. Frey
  • B. Niggemann
  • J. Seidenberg
  • F. Ratjen
  • W. H. Nikolaizik
  • R. A. Seger
  • S. Lau
  • U. Wahn
  • A. Rohwedder
  • H. Werchau
  • C. Berger
  • D. Nadal
  • J. Tröger
  • B. Stöver
  • J. Kotzerke
  • B. Betsch
  • C. F. Poets
  • T. G. Nüßlein
  • H. Skopnik
  • T. G. Wenzl
Chapter
  • 318 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Trotz der neuen Untersuchungsmethoden mittels moderner Apparate und Labormethoden haben die Anamnese und die klinische Untersuchung nichts von ihrer Wichtigkeit eingebüßt. Meist ersparen sie unnötige diagnostische Abklärungen und Kosten.

Literatur

  1. Hilman B (1993) Clinical assessment of pulmonary disease in infants and children. In: Pediatric respiratory disease, diagnosis and treatment. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 57–67Google Scholar
  2. Iliff A, Lee VA (1952) Child Dev 23:237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Pasterkamp H (1990) The history and physical examination. In: Cher-nick V (ed) Kendigs disorders or the respiratory tract in children, 5th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 56–76Google Scholar
  4. Smalhout B, Hill-Vaughan AB (1979) Das dyspnoische Kind. Die Bronchoskopie zur Diagnose und Behandlung. ThomaeGoogle Scholar
  5. AARC Clinical Practice Guidelines (1994) Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring for neonates and pediatric patients. Respir Care 39/12: 1176–1179Google Scholar
  6. AARC Clinical Practice Guidelines (1994) Capillary blood gas sampling for neonates and pediatric patients. Respir Care 39/12: 1180–1183Google Scholar
  7. Abramo TJ, Wiebe RA, Scott SM, Primm PA, Mclntyre D, Mydler T (1996) Noninvasive capnometry in a pediatric population with respiratory emergencies. Pediatr Emerg Care 12:252–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Malley WJ (1990) Clinical blood gases. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 379Google Scholar
  9. Numa AH, Newth CJ (1995) Assessment of lung function in the intensive care unit. Pediatr Pulmonol 19:118–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Poets CF, Southall DP (1994) Noninvasive monitoring of oxygenation in infants and children: practical considerations and areas of concern. Pediatrics 93:737–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rahn H, Reeves RB, Howell BJ (1975) Hydrogen ion regulation, temperature and evolution. Am Rev Respir Dis 112:165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Tobin M (1988) Respiratory monitoring in the intensive care unit. Am Rev Respir Dis 138:1625CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hibbert ME, Lannigan A, Landau LI, Phelan PD (1989) Lung function values from a longitudinal study of healthy children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol 7:101–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lernen RJ (1990) Pulmonary function testing in the office, clinic, and home. In: Chernick V, Kendig EL (eds) Disorders of the respiratory tract in children, 5th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 147–154Google Scholar
  15. Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, Pedersen OF, Peslin R, Yernault JC (1993) Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows. Report working party standardization of lung function tests, European Community for steel and coal. Official statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J 6 (Suppl 16): 5–40Google Scholar
  16. Quanjer PH, Borsboom GJJM, Brunekreef B et al. (1995) Spirometrie reference values for white European children and adolescents: Polgar revisited. Pediatr Pulmonol 19:135–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Sly PD, Hayden MJ, Morgan WJ (1999) Lung function in cooperative subjects. In: Taussig LM, Landau LJ (eds) Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, 1st edn. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 205–212Google Scholar
  18. Taussig LM, Chernick V, Wood R, Farrell P, Mellins RB (1980) Standardization of lung function testing in children. Proceedings and recommendations of the GAP conference committee, cystic fibrosis foundation. J Pediatr 97:668–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bull U, Schicha H, Biersack HJ et al. (1994) Nuklearmedizin. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  20. Cotes JE, Chinn DJ, Quanjer PH (1993) Standardisation of the measurement of transfer factor. Eur Respir J 6 (Suppl 16): 41 sGoogle Scholar
  21. Hart MC, Orzalesi MM, Cook CD (1963) Relation between anatomic respiratory dead space and body size and lung volume. J Appi Physiol 18:519Google Scholar
  22. Koch G, Gaultier C, Boule M, Chaussain M (1989) Transfer factor (diffusing capacity). Steady state method. Eur Respir J 2 (Suppl 4): 164 sGoogle Scholar
  23. Ritter L, Otto HJ, Hühnerbein J et al. (1993) Befunde der kombinierten Ventilations-Perfusionsszintigrafie bei Kindern mit Fehlbildungen der Bronchien, der Lungen und der Lungengefäße. Kinderärztl Praxis 61:12Google Scholar
  24. Zapletal A, Samanek M, Paul T (1987) Lung function in children and adolescents. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  25. Chai H, Farr RS, Froehlich LA et al. (1975) Standardization of bronchial inhalation procedures. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56:323–327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Geubelle F (1963) Le test de provocation par voie pulmonaire chez l’enfant asthmatique. Rev Med Liège 18:161–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hardt H von der, Miehls M (1974) Der kontrollierte Inhalations-Provokationstest im Ganzkörperplethysmographen. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 122:599–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lindemann H (1991) Histamin-Provokationstest bei Kindern. Pneumologie 45:695–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Sterk PJ, Fabbri LM, Quanjer PH et al. (1993) Airway responsiveness. Standardized challenge testing with pharmacological, physical and sensitizing stimuli in adults. Eur Respir J (Suppl) 16:53–83Google Scholar
  30. Tiffeneau R, Beauvallet M (1945) Epreuve de bronchoconstriction et de bronchodilatation par aérosols. Emploi pour le dépistage, la mesure et le contrôle des insuffisances respiratoires chroniques. Bull Acad Natl Med 129:165–168Google Scholar
  31. Wönne R, Kattan M, Orange RP, Levison H (1978) Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine and metacholine in asthmatic children after inhalation of SCH 1000 and chlorpheniramine maleate. J Allergy Clin Immunol 62:119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Anderson SD, Smith CM, Rodwell LT, du Toit JI, Riedler J, Robertson CF (1995) The use of non-isotonic aerosols for evaluating bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In: Spector S (ed) Provocation testing in clinical practice. Dekker, New York, pp 249–278Google Scholar
  33. Avital A, Springer C, Bar-Yishay E, Godfrey S (1995) Adenosine, metha-choline, and exercise challenges in children with asthma or pae-diatric chronic obstructive pulmonary desease. Thorax 50: 511–516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Eichler I, Götz M, Zarkovic J, Köflinger A (1992) Distilled water challenges in asthmatic children. Chest 102:753–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Eschenbacher WL, Gravelyn TR (1988) Mediator release after local os-molar challenge to the airways. Mechanisms in asthma: pharmacology, physiology, and management. Liss, New York, pp 355–363Google Scholar
  36. Haby MM, Peat JK, Mellis CM, Anderson SD, Woolcock AJ (1995) An exercise challenge for epidemiological studies of childhood asthma; validity and repeatability. Eur Respir J 8:729–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Modl M, Eber E, Steinbrugger B, Weinhandl E, Zach MS (1996) Comparing methods for assessing bronchial responsiveness in children: single step cold air challenge, multiple step cold air challenge, and histamine provocation. Eur Respir J 8:1742–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Riedler J, Reade T, Dalton M, Holst D, Robertson CF (1994) Hypertonic saline challenge in an epidemiological survey of asthma in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:1632–1639CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wojnarowski C, Storm Van’s Gravesande K, Riedler J, Eichler I, Gartner C, Frischer T (1996) Comparison of bronchial challenge with ultrasonic nebulized distilled water and hypertonic saline in children with mild to moderate asthma. Eur Respir J 9:1896–1901CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Zach M, Polgar G, Kump H, Kroisel P (1984) Cold air challenge of airway hyperreactivity in children: practical application and theoretical aspects. Pediatr Res 18: 469–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Bar-Or O (1986) Die Praxis der Sportmedizin in der Kinderheilkunde. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen-Solai A (1996) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in chronic heart failure. In: Wasserman K (ed) Exercise gas exchange in heart disease. Futura, Armonk/NY, pp 17–38Google Scholar
  43. Docherty D (1996) Testing aerobic power, capacity and performance. In: Bar-Or O (ed) The Encyclopaedia of sports medicine VI: the child and adolescent athlete. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 573–601Google Scholar
  44. Fahey J, Nemet D, Cooper DM (2002) Clinical exercise testing in children. Prog Respir Res 32:282–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hebestreit H, Lawrent W, Zeiger O, Kienast W, Jüngst BK (1997) Ergometrie im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 145:1326–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heinzmann H, Russ M, Steinacker JM, Lang D (1995) Beurteilung der körperlichen Leistungsfähigkeit von gesunden und herzkranken Kindern mit Hilfe der Laufbandergometrie. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 143:754–760Google Scholar
  47. Klimt F (1992) Sportmedizin im Kindes- und Jugendalter, Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindemann H, Leupold W (Hrsg) Lungenfunktionsdiagnostik bei Kindern. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (im Druck)Google Scholar
  49. Rowland TW (1993) Aerobic exercise. In: Rowland TW (ed) Pediatric laboratory exercise testing. Clinical guide lines. Human Kinetic Publ, Champaign/IL, pp 19–41Google Scholar
  50. Wahlund H (1948) Determination of the physical working capacity. Acta Med Scand 132: Suppl 215Google Scholar
  51. Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Darryl YS, Whipp BJ (1987) Principles of exercise testing and interpretation. Lea & Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  52. Clark NM, Evans D, Mellins RB (1992) Patient use of peak flow monitoring. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:722–725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gruber W, Eber E, Zach M (1997) Peak-flow-Messung aus pädiatrischer Sicht. Klin Pädiatr 209:11–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lebowitz MD (1991) The use of peak expiratory flow rate measurements in respiratory disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 11:166–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lebowitz MD, Quanjer PH (eds) (1997) Peak expiratory flow. Eur Respir J 10 (Suppl24):1s-83sGoogle Scholar
  56. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (1992) International consensus report on diagnosis and management of asthma. Eur Respir J 5:601–641Google Scholar
  57. Bates J, Schmalisch G, Filbrun D, Stocks J (2000) Tidal breath analysis for infants. Eur Respir J 16:1180–1192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Coates A, Stocks J (1991) Esophageal pressure manometry in human infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 11:350–360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Feher A, Castile R, Kisling J et al. (1996) Flow limitation in normal infants: a new method for forced expiratory maneuvers from raised lung volumes. J Appl Phys 80 (6): 2019–2025Google Scholar
  60. Fletcher M, Baraldi E, Steinbrugger B (1996) Passive respiratory mechanics. In: Stocks J, Sly P, Tepper R, Morgan W (eds) Infant respiratory function testing. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 283–327Google Scholar
  61. Frey U, Stocks J, Coates A, Sly P, Bates J (2000a) Specifications for eqipment used for infant pulmonary function testing. Eur Respir J 16: 731–740CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Frey U, Stocks J, Coates A, Sly P, Bates J (2000b) Specifications for signal processing and data handling used for infant pulmonary function testing. Eur Respir J 16:1016–1022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gappa M, Fletcher M, Dezateux C, Stocks J (1993) Comparison of nitrogen washout and Plethysmographie measurements of lung volume in healthy infants. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:1496–1501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gappa M, Pilgrim L, Jackson E, Costeloe K, Stocks J (1996) A new mi-crotransducer catheter for measuring esophageal pressure in infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 22:117–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gappa M, Colin A, Goetz I, Stocks J (2001) Passive Respiratory Mechanics — the occlusion techniques. Eur Respir J 17:141–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gaultier C, Fletcher M, Beardsmore C, England S, Motoyama E, and the ATS/ERS Working Group (1995) Respiratory function measurements in infants: measurement conditions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:2058–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lanteri C, Kano STN, Sly P (1995) Measurement of dynamic respiratory mechanics in neonatal and pediatric intensive care: the multiple linear regression technique. Pediatr Pulmonol 19:29–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mead J, Whittenberger JL (1953) Physical properties of human lungs measured during spontaneous respiration. J Appl Physiol 5: 779–796Google Scholar
  69. Morris M, Gustafsson P, Tepper R, Gappa M, Stocks J (2001) The bias flow nitrogen washout technique for measuring functional residual capacity in infants. Eur Respir J 17:529–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Reinmann B, Frey U, Stocks J (2001) Assessment of an infant whole-body Plethysmograph using an infant lung function model. Eur Respir J 17:765–772CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Stocks J, Quanjer P (1995) Reference values for residual volume, functional residual capacity and total lung capacity. Eur Respir J 8:492–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Stocks J, Marchal F, Kraemer R, Gutkowski P, Bar-Yishay E, Godfrey S (1996) Plethysmographic assessment of functional residual capacity and airway resistance. In: Stocks J, Sly P, Tepper R, Morgan W (eds) Infant respiratory function testing. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 191–239Google Scholar
  73. Stocks J, Sly P, Morris M, Frey U (2000) Standards for infant respiratory function testing: what(ever) next? Eur Respir J 16:581–584CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Stocks J, Godfrey S, Beardsmore C, Bar-yishay E, Castile R (2001) ERS/ATS Task Force on Standards for infant respiratory function testing: Plethysmographie measurements of lung volume and airway resistance. Eur Respir J 17:302–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Turner D, Stick S, LeSouef K, Sly P, LeSouef P (1995) A new technique to generate and assess forced expiration from raised lung volumes in infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:1441–1450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Bisgaard H, Klug B (1995) Lung function measurement in awake young children. Eur Respir J 8:2067–2075CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Desager KN et al. (1991) Measurement of total respiratory impedance in infants by the forced oscillation technique. J Appl Physiol 71:770–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. DuBois AB et al. (1956) Oscillation mechanics of lung and chest in man. J Appl Physiol 8:587–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Euler C von (1983) On the central pattern generator for the basic breathing rhythmicity. J Appl Physiol 55:1547–1659Google Scholar
  80. Frey U, Kraemer R (1995) Pressure oscillations after flow interruption in relation to lung mechanics. Respir Physiol 102:225–237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Frey U et al. (1997) Human resp. input impedance between 32 and 800 Hz measured by interrupter technique and forced oscillations. J Appl Physiol 82:1018–1023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Frey U, Silverman M, Kraemer R, Jackson AC (1998 a) Measurements of high frequency respiratory impedance in infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158:363–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Frey U, Silverman M, Kraemer R, Jackson AC (1998b) High frequency respiratory input impedance measured by interrupter technique in infants. Eur Resp J 12:148–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jackson AC, Tennhoff W, Kraemer R, Frey U (1998) Airway and tissue resistance in wheezy infants. Effects of albuterol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med (in press)Google Scholar
  85. Marchal F et al. (1994) Transfer impedance and thoracic gas volume estimate airway and tissue impedance in infants. Eur Respir Rev 4 (19): 159–164Google Scholar
  86. Neergaard K von et al. (1927) Die Messung der Strömungswiderstände in den Atemwegen des Menschen, insbesondere bei Asthma und Emphysem. Z Clin Med 105:51–82Google Scholar
  87. Phagoo SB et al. (1993) Accuracy and sensitivity of interrupter technique for measuring the response of bronchial challenge in normal subjects. Eur Respir J 6:996–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sly P et al. (1996) Measurement of low frequency respiratory impedance in infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154:61–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stocks J, Sly P, Tepper RS, Morgan W (eds) (1996) Infant respiratory function testing. Wiley-Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Freitag L, Greschuchna D (1989) Fiberbronchoskopie oder »richtige« Bronchoskopie? Atemw Lungenkrkh 15:81–91Google Scholar
  91. Godfrey S, Springer C, Maayan C, Avital A, Vatashky E, Belin B (1987) Is there a place for rigid bronchoscopy in the management of pediatric lung disease? Pediatr Pulmonol 3:179–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Loddenkemper R (1995) Starre Bronchoskopie — flexible Bronchoskopie: Konkurrenz oder Ergänzung? Atemw Lungenkrkh 21:548–551Google Scholar
  93. Marzo SJ, Hotaling AJ (1995) Trade-off between airway resistance and optical resolution in pediatric rigid bronchoscopy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 104:282–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Nakhosteen JA (1995) Zurück zur starren Bronchoskopie? Atemw Lungenkrkh 21:486–489Google Scholar
  95. Antonelli M, Conti G, Rocco M, Arcangeli A, Cavaliere K, Proietti R, Meduri GU (2002) Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation vs. Conventional oxygen supplementation in hypoxemic patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy. Chest 121:1149–1154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. De Blic J, Marchac V, Scheinmann P (2002) Complications of flexible bronchoscopy in children: prospective study of 1328 procedures. Eur RespirJ 20:1271–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lannoli ED, Litman RS (2002) Tension pneumathorax during flexible fiberoptic brochoscopy in a newborn. Anast Analg 94:512–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lawson RW, Peters JI, Shelledy DC (2000) Effects of fiberoptic bronchoscopy during mechanical ventilation in a lung model. Chest 118:824–831CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nielson DW, Ku PL, Egger M (2000) Topical lignocaine exaggrates laryngomalacia during flexible bronchoscopy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161:147–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Nussbaum E, Zagnoev M (2001) Pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscopy with a laryngeal mask airway. Cest 120:614–606Google Scholar
  101. Reyle-Hahn M, Niggemann B, Max M, Streich R, Roissant R (2000) Remifentanil and propofol for sedation in children an ypoung adolescents undergoing diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. Paediatr Anaest 10:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Slonim AD, Ognibene FP (1999) Amnestic agents in pediatric bronchoscopy. Chest 116:1802–1808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Abadco DL, Steiner P (1992) Gastric lavage is better than bronchoalveolar lavage for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. Ped Infect Dis J 11:735–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Azevedo I, de Blic J, Scheinman P et al. (1995) Enhanced arachidonic acid metabolism in alveolar macrophages from wheezy infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:1208–1214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Birrer P, McElvaney NG, Rudeberg A et al. (1994) Protease-antiprotease imbalance in the lungs of children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:207–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. De Blic J, McKelvie P, Le Bourgeois M et al. (1987) Value of bronchoalveolar lavage in the management of severe acute pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis in the immunocompromised child. Thorax 42:759–765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. De Blic J, Midulla F, Barbato A et al. (2000) ERS Task Force on bron-choalveolar lavage in children. Eur Respir J 15:217–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Colombo JL, Hallberg TK (1987) Recurrent aspiration in children: Lipidladen macrophage quantification. Pediatr Pulmonol 3:86–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Fan LL, Langston C (1993) Chronic interstitial lung disease in children. Pediatric Pulmonol 16:184–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ferguson AC, Whitlaw M, Brown H (1992) Correlation of bronchial eosinophil and mast cell activation with bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90:609–613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Grigg J, Amon S, Silverman M (1992) Fractional processing of sequential bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from intubated babies. Eur Respir J 5:727–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Groneck P, Speer CP (1995) Inflammatory mediators in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 73: F1–F3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Henderson AJW (1994) Bronchoalveolar lavage. Arch Dis Child 70:167–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Khan TZ, Wagener JS, Bost T, Martinez J, Accurso FJ, Riches DW (1995) Early pulmonary inflammation in infants with cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:1075–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Marguet C, Jouen-Boedes F, Dean TP, Warner JO (1999) Bronchoalveolar cell profiles in children with asthma, infantile wheeze, chronic cough, or cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159(5/1): 1533–1540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ratjen F, Havers W, Costabel U (1996) Differenziai cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in immunosuppressed children with pulmonary infiltrates. Arch Dis Child 74:507–511CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ratjen F, Costabel U (1997) Die bronchoalveoläre Lavage im Kindesalter: Technische Aspekte und Referenzwerte. Pneumologie 51:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ratjen F, Costabel U, Griese M, Paul K (2003) Bronchoalveolar lavage findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Eur Respir J 21:144–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Davies L, Dolgin S, Kattan M (1997) Morbidity and mortality of open lung biopsy in children. Pediatrics 99:660–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Foglia RP, Shilyansky J, Fonkalsrud EW (1989) Emergency lung biopsy in immuncompromised pediatric patients. Ann Surg 210:90–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Gilbert JC, Powell DM, Hartman GE, Seibel NL, Newman KD (1996) Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for children with pulmonary metastases from osteosarcoma. Ann Surg Onco 3:539–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Klose KC, Mertens R, Alzen G, Loer F, Bocking A (1991) CT-guided percutaneous large-bore biopsies in benign and malignant pediatric lesions. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 14:78–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kurland G, Noyes BE, Jaffe R, Atlas AB, Armitage J, Orenstein DM (1993) Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy in children following heart-lung and lung transplantation. Chest 104: 1043–1048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Morton R, Mee J (1986) Measles pneumonia. Lung puncture findings in 56 cases related to chest X-ray changes and clinical features. Ann Trop Paediatr 6:41–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rothenberg SS, Wagner JS, Chang JH, Fan LL (1996) The safety and efficacy of thorascopic lung biopsy for diagnosis and treatment in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg 31:100–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Smyth RL, Carty H, Thomas H, Velzen D van, Heaf D (1994) Diagnosis of interstitial lung disease by a percutaneous lung biopsy sample. Arch Dis Child 70:143–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Spencer DA, Alton HM, Raafat F, Weller PH (1996) Combined percutaneous lung biopsy and high-resolution computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of lung disease in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 22:111–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Whitehead B, Scott JP et al. (1992) Technique and use of transbronchial biopsy in children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol 12: 240–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Correa AG (1996) Diagnostic approach to pneumonia in children. Semin Respir Infect 11:131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Khakoo GA, Goldstraw P, Hansell DM, Bush A (1996) Surgical treatment of Chapaupneumonic empyema. Pediatr Pulmonol 22:348–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Light RW, MacGrego ML, Luchsinger PC, Ball WC (1972) Pleural effusions: the diagnostic seChapaution of transudates and exudates. Ann Intern Med 77:507–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Meisel S, Shamiss A, Thaler M, Nussinovitch N, Rosenthal T (1990) Pleural fluid to serum bilirubin concentration ratio for the seChapaution of transudates from exudates. Chest 98:141–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Roth BJ, O’Meara TF, Cragun WH (1990) The serum-effusion albumin gradient in the evaluation of pleural effusions. Chest 98:546–549CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Schraader EB, Hesseling PB (1987) Pleuropericardial effusions in children with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A report of 2 cases. S Afr Med J 72:878–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Valdés L, Pose A, Suárez J et al. (1991) Cholesterol: a useful Chapaumeter for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Chest 99:1097–1102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Valdés L, Alvarez D, San José E et al. (1995) Value of adenosine deaminase in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusions in young patients in a region of high prevalence of tuberculosis. Thorax 50:600–603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Barclay A, Brown M, Law S, McKnight A, Tomlinson M, Merwe P van der (1997) The leucocyte antigen facts book. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  138. Coligan J, Kruisbeek A, Margulies D, Shevach E, Strober W (1997) Current protocols in immunology, vols 1–3. Wiley, New York (laufend aktualisiert)Google Scholar
  139. European Collaborative Study (1992) Age-related standards for T lymphocyte subsets based on unifected children born to human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected women. Pediatr Infect Dis J 11:1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Metcalf J, Gallin J, Nauseef W, Root R (1986) Laboratory manual of neutrophil function. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  141. Ochs H, Smith CIE, Puck JM (1999) Primary immunodeficiency diseases. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  142. WHO Scientific Group (1997) Primary immunodeficiency diseases. Clin Exp Immunol 109 (Suppl 1): 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Berkowitz RB, Tinkelmann DG, Lutz C, Crummie A, Smith K (1992) Evaluation of the multi-test device for immediate hypersensitivity skin-testing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90:979–985CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Bousquet J, Michel FB (1992) Precision of prick and puncture test. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90:870–872CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Bousquet J, Chanez P, Chanal I, Michel F-B (1990) Comparison between RAST und Pharmacia CAP system: a new automated specific IgE assay. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85:1039–1043CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Burrows B, Martinez FD, Halonen M, Barbee RA, Cline MG (1989) Association of asthma with serum IgE levels and skin reactivity to allergens. N Engl J Med 320:271–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Demoly P, Bousquet J, Manderscheid J-C, Dreborg S, Dhivert H, Michel F-B (1991) Precision of skin prick and puncture tests with nine methods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88:758–762CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. De Weck AL (1997) Zellulärer Allergen-Stimulierungstest (CAST). Allergologie 20 (10):487–502Google Scholar
  149. Dreborg S, Holgersson M, Nilsson G, Zetterström O (1987) Dose response relationship of allergen, histamine, and histamine releasers in skin prick test and the precision of the skin prick test method. Allergy 42:117–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Gleeson M, Cripps AW, Hensley MJ, Wlodarczyk JH, Henry RL, Clancy RL (1996) A clinical evaluation in children of the pharmacia ImmunoCAP system for inhalant allergens. Clin Exp Allergy 26:697–702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kulig M, Tacke U, Edenharter G, Bergmann R, Lau S, Wahn V, Zepp F, Wahn U (1999) Total aserum IgE levels during the first six years of life. Estimates for a population based sample of 4082 Caucasian children from Germany. J Pediatr (in press)Google Scholar
  152. Meinert R, Frischer T, Karmaus W, Kühr J (1994) Influence of skin prick test criteria on estimation of prevalence and incidence of allergic sensitization in children. Allergy 49:526–532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Peat JK, Woolcock AJ (1992) Sensitivity to common allergens: relation to respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children from three different climatic areas of Australia. Clin Exp Allergy 21:573–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pfannenstiel C, Friedrichs F, Barher M, Ott H, Heimann G, Merk H (2001) CAP-FEIA-System vs. CLA Atopy Panel 20. Pädiatr Allergol Klin Prax 3:15–19Google Scholar
  155. Sears MR, Herbison GP, Holdaway MD, Hewitt CJ, Flannery EM, Siva PA (1989) The relative risk of sensitivity to grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander in the development of childhood asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 19:419–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sears MR, Burrows B, Flannery EM, Herbison GP, Hewitt CJ, Holdaway MD (1991) Relation between airway responsiveness and serum IgE in children with asthma and in apparently normal children. N Engl J Med 325:1067–1071CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Arstila PR Halonen PE (1988) Direct antigen detection. In: Lennette EH, Halonen P, Murphy FA (eds) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Principles and practice. Vol II: Viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial diseases. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 60–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Grandien M (1988) Chapaumyxoviridae: The Chapauinfluenza viruses. In: Lennette EH, Halonen P, Murphy FA (eds) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Principles and practice. Vol II: Viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial diseases. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 484–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Hall CB (1990) Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 1265–1279Google Scholar
  160. Hierholzer JC, Tannock GA(1988)Coronaviridae:Thecoronaviruses.In: Lennette EH, Halonen P, Murphy FA (eds) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Principles and practice. Vol II: Viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial diseases. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 451–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Hoogen BG van den, de Jong JC, Groen J, Kuiken T, de Groot R, Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD (2001) A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat Med 7:719–724CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Modlin JF (1990) Coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses. In: Mandel GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 1367–1382Google Scholar
  163. Rajakumar A, Inkster M, Manger ID, Swierkosz EM, Schulze IT (1992) Section V: Airborne and respiratory viruses. The use of the polymerase chain reaction in influenza virus detection and characterization. In: Becker Y, Darai G (eds) Diagnosis of human viruses by polymerase chain reaction technology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 260–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Ryan-Poirier KA, Katz JM, Webster RG, Kawaoka Y (1992) Application of directigen FLU-A for the detection of influenza A virus in human and non human specimens. J Clin Microbiol 30:1072–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Selb B (1992) Medizinische Virusdiagnostik. UmschauGoogle Scholar
  166. Skern T, Kovar H, Jug G, Auer H, Torgersen K, Hartmuth K, Blaas D (1992) Section V: Airborne and respiratory viruses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of rhinoviruses. In: Becker Y, Darai G (eds) Diagnosis of human viruses by polymerase chain reaction technology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New York Tokyo, pp 272–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wadell G (1988) Adenoviridae: The adenoviruses. In: Lennette EH, Halonen P, Murphy FA (eds) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Principles and practice. Vol II: Viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial diseases. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 284–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Zhang W, Evans DH (1993) PCR Detection and differentiation of influenza virus A, B, and C strains. In: Pershing DH, Smith TF, Tenover FC, White TJ (eds) Diagnostic molecular microbiology. Principles and applications. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, USA, pp 374–382Google Scholar
  169. American Academy of Pediatrics (2000) Group A streptococcal infections. In: Pickering L (ed) Red book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 25th edn. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village/IL, pp 526–536Google Scholar
  170. Carroll K, Reimer L (1996) Microbiology and laboratory diagnosis for upper respiratory tract infections. Clin Infect Dis 23:442–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Correa AG (1996) Diagnostic approach to pneumonia in children. Semin Respir Infect 11:131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Maxson S, Jacobs RF (1994) Guidelines for evaluating children with LRI’s. J Respir Dis 15:453–466Google Scholar
  173. Nissen MD, Sloots T (2002) Rapid diagnosis in pediatric infectious diseases: the past, the present and the future. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:605–612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Woods GL, Washington JA (1995) The clinician and the microbiology laboratory. In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Benett JE (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 4th edn. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 169–199Google Scholar
  175. Wilson ML (1996) General principles of specimen collection and transport. Clin Infect Dis 22:766–777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Leidig E (1994) Thoraxwand, Pleuraraum und Lunge. In: Leidig E, Grunert D (Hrsg) Pädiatrische Ultraschalldiagnostik und Duplexsonographie. Ecomed, LandsbergGoogle Scholar
  177. Schuster W, Färber D (1996) Kinderradiologie 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokioCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Siegel S (1995) Pediatric Sonography. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  179. Silverman FN, Kuhn JP (1993) Caffey’s pediatric X-ray diagnosis: an integrated imaging approach, vol 1. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  180. Bhalla M, Turcios N, Aponte V et al. (1991) Cystic fibrosis: scoring system with thin-section CT. Radiology 179:783–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Bittner RC, Schnoy N, Schönfeld N et al. (1995) Hochauflösende Magnetresonanztomographie (HR-MRT) von Pleura und Thoraxwand: Normalbefund und pathologische Veränderungen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 162 (4): 296–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Curtin JJ, Webster AD, Farrant J, Katz D (1991) Bronchiectasis in hypogammaglobulinaemia — a computed tomography assessment. Clin Radiol 44:82–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Feuerstein I, Archer A, Pluda JM et al. (1990) Thin-walled cavities, cysts a nd pneumothorax in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: further observations with histopathologic correlation. Radiology 174: 697–702Google Scholar
  184. Greenberg SD, Frager D, Suster B, Walker S, Stavropoulos C, Rothpearl A (1994) Active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with AIDS: spectrum of radiographic findings (including a normal appearance). Radiology 193:115–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Hansell DM, Strickland B (1989) High-resolution computed tomography in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. Br J Radiol 62:1–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Hogg JC (1991) Benjamin Felson lecture. Chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown cause: a new classification based on pathogenesis. AJR 156:225–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Kim WS, Lee KS, Kim IO et al. (1997) Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the Lung: CT-pathologic correlation. AJR 168: 47–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. McFadden RG, Carr TJ, Mackie IDF (1992) Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of HIV-1/AIDS pneumonitis. Chest 101 (2): 371–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Naidich DP (1991) High-resolution computed tomography of cystic lung disease. Semin Roentgenol 26:151–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Naidich DP, Garay SM, Goodman PC, Ryback BJ, Kramer EL (1988) Pulmonary manifestations of AIDS. Radiology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Raven, New York, pp 47–77Google Scholar
  191. Nakata H, Egashira K, Watanabe H et al. (1993) MRI of bronchogenic cysts. J Comp Ass Tomogr 17 (2): 267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Olson EM, Bergin CJ, King MA (1995) Fast SE MRI of the chest: Chapaumeter optimization and comparison with conventional SE imaging. J Comp Ass Tomogr 19 (2): 167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Primack SL, Hartman TE, Lee KS, Müller NL (1994) Pulmonary nodules and the CT halo sign. Radiology 190:513–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Sanders C, Nath PH, Bailey WC (1988) Detection of emphysema with computed tomography:correlation with pulmonary function tests and chest radiography. Invest Radiol 23:262–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Stover DE (1994) Pneumocystis carinii: an update. Pulm Perspect 11:3–5Google Scholar
  196. Webb WR (1994) High-resolution computed tomography of obstructive lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am 32:745–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Zwirewich CV, Mayo JR, Müller NL (1991) Low-dose high-resolution CT of lung parenchyma. Radiology 180: 413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Bhalla M, Turcios N, Aponte V et al. (1991) Cystic fibrosis: scoring system with thin-section CT. Radiology 179:783–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Bittner RC, Schnoy N, Schönfeld N et al. (1995) Hochauflösende Magnetresonanztomographie (HR-MRT) von Pleura und Thoraxwand: Normalbefund und pathologische Veränderungen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 162 (4):296–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Curtin JJ, Webster AD, Farrant J, Katz D (1991) Bronchiectasis in hypogammaglobulinaemia — a computed tomography assessment. Clin Radiol 44:82–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Feuerstein I, Archer A, Pluda JM et al. (1990) Thin-walled cavities, cysts a nd pneumothorax in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: further observations with histopathologic correlation. Radiology 174: 697–702Google Scholar
  202. Greenberg SD, Frager D, Suster B, Walker S, Stavropoulos C, Rothpearl A (1994) Active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with AIDS: spectrum of radiographic findings (including a normal appearance). Radiology 193:115–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Hansell DM, Strickland B (1989) High-resolution computed tomography in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. Br J Radiol 62:1–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Hogg JC (1991) Benjamin Felson lecture. Chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown cause: a new classification based on pathogenesis. AJR 156:225–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Kim WS, Lee KS, Kim IO et al. (1997) Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the Lung: CT-pathologic correlation. AJR 168: 47–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. McFadden RG, Carr TJ, Mackie IDF (1992) Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of HIV-1/AIDS pneumonitis. Chest 101 (2): 371–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Naidich DP (1991) High-resolution computed tomography of cystic lung disease. Semin Roentgenol 26:151–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Naidich DP, Garay SM, Goodman PC, Ryback BJ, Kramer EL (1988) Pulmonary manifestations of AIDS. Radiology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Raven, New York, pp 47–77Google Scholar
  209. Nakata H, Egashira K, Watanabe H et al. (1993) MRI of bronchogenic cysts. J Comp Ass Tomogr 17 (2): 267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Olson EM, Bergin CJ, King MA (1995) Fast SE MRI of the chest: Chapaumeter optimization and comparison with conventional SE imaging. J Comp Ass Tomogr 19 (2): 167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Primack SL, Hartman TE, Lee KS, Müller NL (1994) Pulmonary nodules and the CT halo sign. Radiology 190:513–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Sanders C, Nath PH, Bailey WC (1988) Detection of emphysema with computed tomography:correlation with pulmonary function tests and chest radiography. Invest Radiol 23:262–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Stover DE (1994) Pneumocystis carinii: an update. Pulm Perspect 11:3–5Google Scholar
  214. Webb WR (1994) High-resolution computed tomography of obstructive lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am 32:745–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Zwirewich CV, Mayo JR, Müller NL (1991) Low-dose high-resolution CT of lung parenchyma. Radiology 180: 413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Burch WM, Sullivan PJ, McLaren CJ (1986) Technegas — a new ventilation agent for lung scanning. Nucl Med Commun 7:865–871CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Davies H, Kitchman R, Gordon I, Helms P (1985) Regional ventilation in infancy. Reversal of adult pattern. N Engl J Med 313:1626–1628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Gainey MA (1994) Ventilation and perfusion studies of the lung. In: Miller JH, Gelfand MJ (eds) Pediatric nuclear imaging. Saunders, Philadelphia London Toronto Montreal Sydney Tokyo, pp 65–82Google Scholar
  219. Gordon I, Helms P, Fazio F (1981) Clinical applications of radionuclide lung scanning in infants and children. Br J Radiol 54:576–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Hoyer PF, Gonda S, Bartheis M, Krohn HP, Brodehl J (1986) Thromboembolic complications in children with nephrotic syndrome. Risk and incidence. Acta Paediatr Scand 75:804–810CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Kenney IJ, Lenney W, Lutkin JE, Gordon I (1993) Late pulmonary scintigraphic defects after uneventful recovery from simple focal pneumonia of childhood. Br J Radiol 66:1031–1034CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Kotzerke J, Hardt H von der, Wiese H, Seidenberg J, Beyer R, Hundeshagen H (1992) Die mukoziliare Clearance im Kindesalter. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 140:227–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Monaghan P, Provan I, Murray C et al. (1991) An improved radionuclide technique for the detection of altered pulmonary permeability. J Nucl Med 32:1945–1949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Parker JA, Coleman RE, Siegel BA, Sostman HD, McKusick KA, Royal HD (1996) Procedure guideline for lung scintigraphy: 1.0. J Nucl Med 37:1906–1910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Treves ST, Packard AB (1995) Lungs. In: Treves ST (ed) Pediatric nuclear medicine, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 159–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Leidig E (1994) Thoraxwand, Pleuraraum und Lunge. In: Leidig E, Grunert D (Hrsg) Pädiatrische Ultraschalldiagnostik und Duplexsonographie. Ecomed, LandsbergGoogle Scholar
  227. Schuster W, Färber D (1996) Kinderradiologie 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokioCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Siegel S (1995) Pediatric Sonography. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  229. Silverman FN, Kuhn JP (1993) Caffey’s pediatric X-ray diagnosis: an integrated imaging approach, vol 1. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  230. American Thoracic Society (1996) Standards and indications for cardiopulmonary sleep studies in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153:866–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Baird TM, Neuman MR (1991) Effect of infant Position on breath amplitude measured by transthorarcic impedance and strain gauges. Pediatr Pulmonol 10:52–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Marcus CL, Omlin KJ, Basinki DJ et al. (1992) Normal Polysomnographic values for children and adolescents. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:1235–1239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Poets CF (1997) Polygraphic sleep studies in infants and children. In: Carlsen KH, Sennhauser F, Warner JO, Zach MS (eds) New diag-nostik techniques in paediatric respiratory medicine. Eur Respir Monogr 2(5):179–213Google Scholar
  234. Poets CF, Southall DP (1994) Non-invasive monitoring of oxygenation in infants and children: practical considerations and areas of concern. Pediatrics 93:737–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Afzelius BA (1976) A human syndrome caused by immotile cilia. Science 193:317–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Afzelius BA (1997) Ciliary dysfunction. In: Crystal RG, West JB (eds) The lung, 2nd edn. Raven, Philadelphia, pp 2573–2578Google Scholar
  237. Carson JL, Collier AM, Hu SS (1985) Acquired ciliary defects in nasal epithelium of children with acute viral upper respiratory tract infections. N Engl J Med 312:463–468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Deitmer T (1986) A method for standardizing cytologic sampling for the estimation of nasal ciliary activity. Arch Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 243:288–292Google Scholar
  239. Jorissen M, Cassiman JJ (1991) Relevance of the ciliary ultrastructure in primary and secondary ciliary dyskinesia. Am J Rhinol 5: 91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Omray H, Haffner K, Volkel A et al. (2000) Homozygonity mapping of a gene locus for primary ciliary dyskinesia on chromosome 5p and identification of the heavy dynein chain DNA H5 as a candidate gene. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 23:696–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Rutland J, Cole PJ (1980) Non-invasive sampling of nasal cilia for measurement of beat frequency and study of ultrastructure. Lancet II: 564–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Rutman A, Cullinan P, Woodhead M, Cole PJ, Wilson R (1993) Ciliary disorientation. A possible variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Thorax 48:770–771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Bagucka B, Badriul H, Vademaele K, Troch E, Vandenplas Y(2000) Normal ranges of continuous pH monitoring in the proximal esophagus. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31:244–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Friesen CA, Streed CJ, Carney LA, Zwick DL, Roberts CC (1994) Esophagitis and modified Bernstein tests in infants with apparent life-threatening events. Pediatrics 94:541–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Rudolph CD (2000) Probing questions: when is gastroesophageal reflux the cause of symptoms? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30:3–4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Rudolph CD, Mazur U, Liptak GS, Baker RD, Boyle JT, Colletti RB, Gerson WT, Werlin SL (2001) Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children: recommendi-ations of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 32 (Suppl 2): S1-S31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Savary M, Miller G (1977) Der Oesophagus. Lehrbuch und endoskopischer Atlas. Gassmann, SolothurnGoogle Scholar
  248. Skopnik H, Silny J, Heiber O, Schulz J, Rau G, Heimann G (1996) Gastroesophageal reflux in infants: evaluation of a new intraluminal impedance technique. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 23:591–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Sondheimer JM, Hoddes E (1992) Gastroesophageal reflux with drifting onset in infants: A phenomenon unique to sleep. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 15:418–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Vandenplas Y (Coordinat) (1992a) A standardized protocol for the methodology of esophageal pH monitoring and interpretation of the data for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Society statement of a working group of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 14:467–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Vandenplas Y (1992 b) Oesophageal pH monitoring for gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants and children. Wiley & Sons, Chichester New York Brisbane Toronto SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  252. Vandenplas Y, Ashkenazi A, Belli D et al. (1993) A proposition for the diagnosis and treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children: a report from a working group on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Eur J Pediatr 152:704–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Wenzl TG (2002) Investigating esophageal reflux with the intraluminal impedance technique. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 34:261–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Wenzl TG, Moroder C, Trachterna M, Thomson M, Silny J, Heimann G, Skopnik H (2002) Esophageal pH monitoring and impedance measurement: a comparison of two diagnostic tests for gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 34:519–523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Willich E (1996) Oesophagus. In: Schuster W, Färber D (Hrsg) Kinderradiologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokioGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rutishauser
  • T. Nicolai
  • M. Zach
  • W. Leupold
  • H. von der Hardt
  • R. Wönne
  • J. Riedler
  • H. Lindemann
  • W. Gruber
  • M. Gappa
  • U. Frey
  • B. Niggemann
  • J. Seidenberg
  • F. Ratjen
  • W. H. Nikolaizik
  • R. A. Seger
  • S. Lau
  • U. Wahn
  • A. Rohwedder
  • H. Werchau
  • C. Berger
  • D. Nadal
  • J. Tröger
  • B. Stöver
  • J. Kotzerke
  • B. Betsch
  • C. F. Poets
  • T. G. Nüßlein
  • H. Skopnik
  • T. G. Wenzl

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations