Brushless DC Motors
Brushless DC (BLDC) motors, also called permanent magnet synchronous motors, are used in direct-drive applications mainly due to their large torque producing capability. Compared to conventional DC motors, they have no brushes or mechanical commutators, which eliminates the problems due to mechanical wear of the moving parts [68, 74]. In addition, the better heat dissipation characteristics and ability to operate at high speeds  render them superior to the brushed DC motor. However, the brushless DC motor constitutes a more difficult problem than its brushed counterpart in terms of modeling and control system design due to its multi-input nature and coupled nonlinear dynamics.
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