Since the beginning of the electron microscopy, it has been well known that the phase contrast due to interference of the coherent wave plays a very important role in image formation. Distinctive examples are: Fresnel diffraction fringes as demonstrated by Boersch (1), Hisi (2) and others; interference fringes in crystals by Heidenreich (3) and Menter (4); biprism-interference fringes obtained by Möllenstedt (5) and Fert (6); a possibility of interferometer introduced by Marton (7), and so on.
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