Advertisement

The development of the lens system in the Hitachi electron microscope

  • Nozomu Morito
  • Bunya Tadano
  • Shinjiro Katagiri
Chapter

Abstract

Astigmatism was already mentioned in Ardenne’s famous book (1), but the astigmatism described therein was one of the Seidel’s aberrations of the third order and a field aberration. Axial astigmatism was more important, though it had not been well known at that time. We usually took underfocused micrographs, in which the astigmatic image defect was vague.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ardenne, M. V.: Elektronen-Übermikroskopie. Berlin: Springer 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Katagiri, S., and B. Tadano: Measurement of astigmatic difference, Report of the Cooperative Research Committee on Electronmicroscopy of Japan, No. 54-A-2 (1950).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haine, M. E., and T. Mulvey: J. sci. Instrum. 31, 326 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leisegang, S.: Optik 11, 49 (1954).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katagiri, S.: Rev. sci. Instrum. 26, 870 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Watanabe, H., and N. Morito: Optik 12, 166 (1955).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morito, N.: J. appl. Physics 25, 986 (1954).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nozomu Morito
    • 1
  • Bunya Tadano
    • 1
  • Shinjiro Katagiri
    • 1
  1. 1.Hitachi Central Research LaboratoryKokubunji, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations