The development of the lens system in the Hitachi electron microscope

  • Nozomu Morito
  • Bunya Tadano
  • Shinjiro Katagiri


Astigmatism was already mentioned in Ardenne’s famous book (1), but the astigmatism described therein was one of the Seidel’s aberrations of the third order and a field aberration. Axial astigmatism was more important, though it had not been well known at that time. We usually took underfocused micrographs, in which the astigmatic image defect was vague.


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  1. 1.
    Ardenne, M. V.: Elektronen-Übermikroskopie. Berlin: Springer 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Katagiri, S., and B. Tadano: Measurement of astigmatic difference, Report of the Cooperative Research Committee on Electronmicroscopy of Japan, No. 54-A-2 (1950).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haine, M. E., and T. Mulvey: J. sci. Instrum. 31, 326 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leisegang, S.: Optik 11, 49 (1954).Google Scholar
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    Katagiri, S.: Rev. sci. Instrum. 26, 870 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Watanabe, H., and N. Morito: Optik 12, 166 (1955).Google Scholar
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    Morito, N.: J. appl. Physics 25, 986 (1954).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nozomu Morito
    • 1
  • Bunya Tadano
    • 1
  • Shinjiro Katagiri
    • 1
  1. 1.Hitachi Central Research LaboratoryKokubunji, TokyoJapan

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