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Soziale Ungleichheit

Muster, Mechanismen und Konsequenzen in Primatengesellschaften
  • Peter M. KappelerEmail author
  • Claudia Fichtel
Chapter
Part of the Interdisziplinäre Anthropologie book series (ANTHRO)

Zusammenfassung

Soziale Ungleichheit und ihre Folgen stellen ein massives Problem für die Stabilität und den Zusammenhalt moderner menschlicher Gesellschaften dar; unter anderem weil sie mit erhöhten Risiken für zahlreiche, individuell nachteilige Merkmale verbunden sind. Wir diskutieren Stress und Einsamkeit als psycho-soziale Faktoren, die diese Verbindung vermitteln, und fassen den Stand der aktuellen Forschung zu deren Beziehungen in Gesellschaften nicht-menschlicher Primaten zusammen. Wir argumentieren, dass die für Homo sapiens vor der Sesshaftigkeit charakteristische Form des Sozialsystems soziale Gleichheit gefördert hat, und dass sich unsere Lebensbedingungen in wenigen Jahrtausenden so rasant und grundlegend geändert haben, dass unsere Psyche und Physiologie noch nicht ausreichend Zeit hatten, darauf mit Anpassungen zu reagieren, die nicht durch die Folgen von chronischem Stress charakterisiert sind. Soziale Ungleichheit und ihre Folgen in menschlichen Gesellschaften liefern also ein Beispiel für die Dynamik der Koevolution zwischen kultureller Veränderung und evolutionärer Anpassung – eines der grundlegenden Probleme der evolutionären Anthropologie.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GöttingenDeutschland

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