The partisan politics of new social risks in advanced postindustrial democracies: Social protection for labor market outsiders

  • Duane SwankEmail author


Advanced postindustrialization generates numerous challenges for the European social model. Central among these challenges is declining income, unstable employment, and inadequate training of semi- and unskilled workers. In this chapter, I assess the partisan basis of support for social policies that address the needs of these marginalized workers. I specifically consider the impacts of postindustrial cleavages among core constituencies of social democratic parties on the capacity of these parties to pursue inclusive social policies. I argue – and find support for in empirical analyses – that encompassing labor organization is the most important factor in strengthening the ability of left parties to build successful coalitions in support of outsider-friendly policies. I go beyond existing work on the topic by considering the full array of postindustrial cleavages facing left parties, by more fully elaborating why encompassing labor organization is crucial, and by considering a more complete set of measures of outsider policies than extant work. I compare my arguments and findings to important new work that stresses coalition building and partisan politics but minimizes the role of class organization.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armingeon, Klaus, and Giuliano Bonoli, eds. 2006. The Politics of Post-Industrial Welfare States: Adapting Postwar Social Policies to New Social Risks. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Arndt, Christopher, and Line Rennwald. 2016. “Union Members at the Polls in Diverse Trade Union Landscapes.” European Journal of Political Research 55 (4): 702-722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, Nathaniel, and Jonathan N. Katz. 1996. “Nuisance versus Substance: Specifying and Estimating Time- Series-Cross-Section Models.” Political Analysis 6: 1-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beramendi, Pablo, Silja Häusermann, Herbert Kitschelt, and Hanspeter Kriesi, eds. 2015. The Politics of Advanced Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Becher, Michael, and Jonas Pontusson. 2011. “Whose Interests do Unions Represent? Unionization by Income in Western Europe,” In Comparing European Workers Part B: Policies and Institutions. Research in the Sociology of Work [Volume 22], edited by David Brady, 181-211. Bingly, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cameron, David. 1978. “The Expansion of the Public Economy: A Comparative Analysis.” American Political Science Review 72 (4): 1243-1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castles, Francis, ed. 1982. The Impact of Parties. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Davidsson, Johan B., and Patrick Emmenegger. 2012. “Insider-Outsider Dynamics and the Reform of Job Security Legislation.” In The Politics of the New Welfare State, edited by Giuliano Bonoli, and David Natali, 206- 229. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ebbinghaus, Bernhard. 2006. “Trade Union Movements in Post-Industrial Welfare States: Opening up to new social interests.” In The Politics of Post-Industrial Welfare States, edited by Klaus Armingeon and Giuliano Bonoli, 12-142. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Emmenegger, Patrick, Silja Häusermann, Bruno Palier, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, eds. 2012. The Age of Dualization: The Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrializing Societies. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gingrich, Jane, and Silja Häusermann. 2015. “The Decline of the Working-Class Vote, the Reconfiguration of the Welfare Support Coalition and Consequences for the Welfare State.” Journal of European Social Policy 25 (1): 50-75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gordon, Joshua C. 2015. “Protecting the Unemployed: Varieties of Unionism and the Evolution of Unemployment Benefits and Active Labor Market Policy in the Rich Democracies.” Socio-Economic Review 13 (1): 79-100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hall, Peter A. 2017. “The Political Sources of Social Solidarity.” In The Strains of Commitment: The Political Sources of Solidarity in Diverse Societies, edited by Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, 201-232. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Häusermann, Silja, and Hanspeter Kriesi. 2015. “What Do Voters Want? Dimensions and Configurations in Individual-Level Preferences and Party Choice.” In The Politics of Advanced Capitalism, edited by Pablo Beramendi, Silja Häusermann, Herbert Kitschelt, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 202-230. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Häusermann, Silja, and Hanna Schwander. 2012. “Varieties of Dualization? Labor Market Segmentation and Insider-Outsider Divides Across Regions.” In The Age of Dualization: The Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrializing Societies, edited by Patrick Emmenegger, Silja Häusermann, Bruno Palier, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, 27-51. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Heston, Allen, Robert. Summers, and Bettina Aten. 2012. Penn World Table Version 7.1. Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania, July.Google Scholar
  17. Hicks, Alex, and Duane Swank. 1992. “Politics, Institutions, and Welfare Spending in Industrialized Democracies, 1960-1992.” American Political Science Review 86 (3): 659-674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huber, Evelyne, Charles Ragin, and John D. Stephens. 1993. “Social Democracy, Christian Democracy, Constitutional Structure and the Welfare State.” American Journal of Sociology 99 (3): 711-749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huo, Jingjing. 2009. Third Way Reforms: Social Democracy after the Golden Age. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. IMF. selected years a. Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook. Washington, DC: IMF. International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  21. IMF. selected years b. Balance of Payments Statistics. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  22. Iversen, Torben, and Thomas R. Cusack. 2000. “The Causes of Welfare Expansion: Deindustrialization or Globalization?” World Politics 52 (3): 313-349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iversen, Torben, and David Soskice. 2006. “Electoral Institutions and the Politics of Coalitions: Why Some Democracies Redistribute More than Others.” American Political Science Review 100 (2): 165-181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Iversen, Torben, and David Soskice. 2015a. “Democratic Limits to Redistribution: Inclusionary versus Exclusionary Coalitions in the Knowledge Economy” World Politics 67 (2): 185-225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Iversen, Torben, and David Soskice. 2015b. “Information, Inequality and Mass Polarization: Ideology in Advanced Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 48 (13): 1781-1813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kam, Cindy, and Robert J. Franzese. 2009. Modeling and Interpreting Interactive Hypotheses in Regression Analysis, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kitschelt, Herbert, and Philipp Rehm. 2015. “Party alignments: Change and Continuity.” In The Politics of Advanced Capitalism, edited by Pablo Beramendi, Silja Häusermann, Herbert Kitschelt, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 179-201. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Korpi, Walter. 1983. The Democratic Class Struggle, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Korpi, Walter, and Joakim Palme. 2003. “New Politics and Class Politics in the Context of Austerity and Globalization.” American Political Science Review 97 (3): 425-446.Google Scholar
  30. Lindvall, Johannes, and David Rueda. 2014. “The Insider-Outsider Dilemma” British Journal of Political Science 44 (2): 460-475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lupu, Noam, and Jonas Pontusson. 2011. “The Structure of Inequality and the Politics of Redistribution.” American Political Science Review 105 (2): 316-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martin, Cathie Jo, and Duane Swank. 2012. The Political Construction of Business Interests: Coordination, Growth, and Inequality, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Mosimann, Nadja, and Jonas Pontusson. 2017. “Solidaristic Unionism and Support for Redistribution in Contemporary Europe,” World Politics 69 (3): 448-492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nelson, Kenneth. 2007. Introducing SaMip: The Social Assistance and Minimum Income Protection Interim Dataset, S-WoPEc No. 11/2007. Swedish Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  35. Pierson, Paul. 1994. Dismantling the Welfare State: Reagan, Thatcher and the Politics of Retrenchment in Britain and the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Pierson, Paul. 1996. “The New Politics of the Welfare State.” World Politics 48 (2): 143-179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peirson, Paul. 2016. “Review Symposium, The Politics of Advanced Capitalism, edited by Pablo Beramendi, Silja Häusermann, Herbert Kitschelt, and Hanspeter Kriesi, Cambridge University Press” (with Peter Hall, Christoffer Green-Pedersen, and Jonas Kraft). Socio-Economic Review 14 (2): 383-394.Google Scholar
  38. Radcliff, Benjamin, and Patricia Davis. 2000. “Labor Organization and Electoral Participation in Industrial Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (1): 132-141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rennwald, Line, and Jonas Pontusson. 2017. “Paper Stones Revisited: Class Voting, Unionization, and the Electoral Decline of Mainstream Left.” Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, August 31- September 3.Google Scholar
  40. Rueda, David. 2005. “Insider-Outsider Politics in Industrialized Democracies.” American Political Science Review 99 (1): 61-74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rueda, David. 2007. Social Democracy Inside Out: Partisanship and Labor Market Policy in Industrialized Democracies, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Scruggs, Lyle, Detlef Jahn, and Kati Kuitto. 2017. “Comparative Welfare Entitlements Dataset 2. Version 2017- 09.” University of Connecticut & University of Greifswald.Google Scholar
  43. Stephens, John D. 1979. The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  44. Swank, Duane. 2002. Global Capital, Political Institutions, and Policy Change in Developed Welfare States. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Swank, Duane. 2014. “The Political Sources of Labor Market Dualism in Post-industrial Democracies.” Review of Keynesian Economics 2 (2): 234-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Swank, Duane, and Cathie Jo Martin. 2001. “Employers and the Welfare State: The Political Economic Organization of Firms and Social Policy in Contemporary Capitalist Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 34 (8): 889-923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thelen, Kathleen. 2014. Varieties of Liberalization and the New Politics of Social Solidarity, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Traxler, Franz, Sabine Blaschke, and Bernhard Kittel. 2001. National Labour Relations in International Markets. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Traxler, Franz, and Gerhard Huemer, eds. 2007. Handbook of Business Interest Associations, Firm Size and Governance. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Van Vliet, Olaf, and Koen Caminada. 2012. “Unemployment Replacement Rates Dataset among 34 Welfare States 1971-2009.” NEUJOBS Special Report No. 2,
  51. Visser, Jelle. 2013. Data Base on Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts, 1960-2011 (ICTWSS), Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies AIAS, University of Amsterdam, Version 4.0, May.Google Scholar
  52. Volkens, Andrea, Pola Lehmann, Nicolas Merz, Sven Regel, and Annika Werner. 2013. The Manifesto Data Collection. Manifesto Project, Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations