Advertisement

Welfare states, demographic transition and immigration policies

  • Philipp LutzEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

How does demographic change influence immigration policies in Western welfare states? In this chapter, I discuss two perspectives on the relationship between demographic ageing and labour immigration policies. Welfare states are under financial strain and face a trade-off between too little immigration that could undermine their economic foundation and too much immigration that could undermine their social foundation. Do welfare states admit more foreign workers to sustain their welfare state model in the context of demographic ageing? This contribution analyses the effects of population ageing on policy openness to immigration and how welfare state regimes moderate this relationship. I examine these questions by conducting a quantitative-comparative analysis of labour immigration policies in 21 Western democracies between 1980 and 2010. The results reveal that the liberalisation of immigration is a common response to demographic ageing but varies by welfare state regime. Social-democratic welfare states face larger welfare risks from immigration and more difficulties to integrate foreign labour. Instead of liberalising immigration, they opt for the facilitated expansion of female employment. Only in the case of liberal and conservative welfare states is there evidence for a demography-induced liberalisation of immigration. The findings suggest that welfare state arrangements condition how countries respond to the demographic challenge of an ageing population.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Afonso, Alexandre. 2018. “Migrant Workers of Working Women? Comparing Labour Supply Policies in Post-War Europe.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice. Early view.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13876988.2018.1527584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afonso, Alexandre, and Camilla Devitt. 2016. “State of the Art: Comparative Political Economy of International Migration.” Socio-Economic Review 14 (3): 591-613.Google Scholar
  3. Armingeon, Klaus, and Giuliano Bonoli. 2006. The Politics of Post-Industrial Welfare States: Adapting post-war social policies to new social risks. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Armingeon, Klaus, and Nathalie Giger. 2008. “Conditional Punishment: A Comparative Analysis of the Electoral Consequences of Welfare State Retrenchment in OECD Nations, 1980-2003.” West European Politics 31 (3): 558-580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armingeon, Klaus, and Philipp Lutz. 2019. “Muddling between Responsiveness and Responsibility: The Swiss Case of a Non-Implementation of a Constitutional Rule”. Comparative European Politics, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  6. Armingeon, Klaus, Kai Guthmann, and David Weisstanner. 2016. “Choosing the Path of Austerity: How Parties and Policy Coalitions Influence Welfare State Retrenchment in Periods of Fiscal Consolidation.” West European Politics 39 (4): 628–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armingeon, Klaus, Virginia Wenger, Fiona Wiedemeier, Christian Isler, Laura Knöpfel, David Weisstanner, and Sarah Engler. 2017. Comparative Political Data Set 1960-2015. University of Bern.Google Scholar
  8. Bartram, David. 2005. International Labour Migration Foreign Workers and Public Policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Bommes, Michael, and Andrew Geddes. 2000. Immigration and Welfare: Challenging the Borders of the Welfare State. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Boräng, Frida. 2018. National Institutions – International Migration. Labour Markets, Welfare States and Immigration Policy. London and New York: ECPR Press.Google Scholar
  11. Boswell, Christina. 2007. “Theorizing Migration Policy: Is There a Third Way?” International Migration Review 41 (1):75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boswell, Christina, and Andrew Geddes. 2011. Migration and Mobility in the European Union. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Boucher, Anna K., and Justin Gest. 2018. Crossroads. Comparative Immigration Regimes in a World of Demographic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Brochmann, Grete, and Anniken Hagelund. 2010. Immigration Policy and the Scandinavian Welfare State 1945-2010. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Bucken-Knapp, Gregg. 2009. Defending the Swedish Model: Social Democrats, Trade Unions and Labor Migration Policy Reform. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  16. Caviedes, Alexander. 2010. Prying Open Fortress Europe. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  17. Ceobanu, Alin M., and Tanya Koropeckyj-Cox. 2013. “Should International Migration Be Encouraged to Offset Population Aging? A Cross-Country Analysis of Public Attitudes in Europe.” Population Research and Policy Review 32 (2): 261–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coleman,David.2008. “TheDemographicEffects of InternationalMigrationinEurope.” OxfordReview of Economic Policy 24 (3): 453–477.Google Scholar
  19. Esping-Andersen, Gösta. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Favell, Adrian, and Randall Hansen. 2002. “Markets Against Politics: Migration, EU Enlargement and the Idea of Europe.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28 (4): 581–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freeman, Gary P. 1986. “Migration and the Political Economy of the Welfare State.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 485: 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fries-Tersch, Elena, Tugce Tugran, and Harriet Bradley. 2016. Annual Report on intra-EU Labour Mobility. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  23. Geddes, Andrew. 2003. “Migration and the Welfare State in Europe.” Political Quarterly 74 (s1): 150-162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Geddes, Andrew, and Daniel Wunderlich. 2009. “Policies and ‘Outcomes’ For Third Country Nationals in Europe’s Labour Markets.” In Legal Frameworks for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals, edited by Jan Niessen and Thomas Huddleston, 195–218. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  25. Green-Pedersen, Christoffer, and Martin Haverland. 2002. “The New Politics and Scholarship of the Welfare State.” Journal of European Social Policy 12 (1): 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall, Peter A., and David Soskice. 2001. Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hampshire, James. 2013. The Politics of Immigration. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  28. Helbling, Marc, Liv Bjerre, Friederike Römer, and Malisa Zobel. 2017. “Measuring Immigration Policies: The IMPIC Database.” European Political Science 16 (1): 79–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Helbling, Marc, and Dorian Kalkum. 2017. “Migration Policy Trends in OECD Countries.” Journal of European Public Policy 38 (1): 1–19.Google Scholar
  30. Hollifield, James F. 2004. “The Emerging Migration State.” International MigrationReview 38 (3): 885–912.Google Scholar
  31. Hollifield, James F., Philip L. Martin, and Pia M. Orrenius. 2014. Controlling Immigration: A GlobalPerspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Lutz, Philipp. 2018. “Variation of Policy-Success: Radical Right Populism and Migration Policy.” West European Politics 42 (3): 517–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Malmberg, Bernhard. 2006. Global Population Ageing, Migration and European External Policies. Technical report. Stockholm: Institute for Futures Studies.Google Scholar
  34. Menz, Georg. 2009. The Political Economy of Managed Migration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. OECD 2019. “Labour Force Statistics: Population and labour force” OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics (database),  https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00288-en (accessed on 17 January 2019).
  36. Parsons, Craig A., and Timothy M. Smedding. 2006. Immigration and the Transformation of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Pierson, Paul. 1994. Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher, and the Politics of Retrenchment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Pierson, Paul. 1998. “Irresistible Forces, Immovable Objects: Post-Industrial Welfare States Confront Permanent Austerity.” Journal of European Public Policy 5 (4): 539–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rayp, Glenn, Ilse Ruyssen, and Samuel Standaert. 2017. “Measuring and Explaining Cross-Country Immigration Policies.” World Development 95: 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ruhs, Martin, and Bridget Anderson. 2010. Who Needs Migrant Workers? Labour Shortages, Immigration, and Public Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Ruhs, Martin. 2013. The Price of Rights. Regulating International Labor Migration. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ruhs,Martin.2018. “Labor ImmigrationPolicies inHigh-IncomeCountries: VariationsacrossPolitical Regimes and Varieties of Capitalism.” Journal of Legal Studies 47 (1): 89-127.Google Scholar
  43. Sainsbury, Diane. 2006. “Immigrants’ Social Rights in Comparative Perspective: Welfare Regimes, Forms of Immigration and Immigration Policy Regimes.” Journal of European Social Policy 16 (3): 229– 244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sides, John, and Jack Citrin. 2007. “European Opinion About Immigration: The Role of Identities, Interests and Information.” British Journal of Political Science 37 (3):477–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Steinmo, Sven. 2003. “Bucking the Trend? The Welfare State and the Global Economy: The Swedish Case Up Close.” New Political Economy 8 (1): 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. van der Meer, Tom, and Jochem Tolsma. 2014. “Ethnic Diversity and Its Effects on Social Cohesion.” Annual Review of Sociology 40 (1): 459–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universität Bern & Université de GenèveBern, GenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations