The capacity of the state to effectively implement a set of basic public services across its territory has become a fundamental aspect of stateness (Mann 1984, Soifer and Vom Hau 2008, Ziblatt 2008, Soifer 2015). Providing public goods such as education, health care, water or electricity services constitutes a substantial pillar within the modern understanding of the proper role of the state (PNUD 2010). Nevertheless, widespread empirical evidence shows that the level of public service provision varies profoundly, not only between world regions and countries but especially within states (Altman and Luna 2012, Rodrigues-Silveira 2012, 2013, Fukuyama 2013, Harbers 2014).
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