Advertisement

Change-Fitness – eine besondere Herausforderung für die Führung

  • Sonja SackmannEmail author
  • Verena Eichel
  • Claudia Schmidt
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die meisten Unternehmen sind mit Veränderungen konfrontiert und müssen diese wirksam meistern, um überlebensfähig zu bleiben. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir zunächst das ganzheitliche Konzept der Change-Fitness vor, das die in der Literatur bekannte Change-Readiness beinhaltet, doch über diese hinausgeht. Anschließend geben wir einen Überblick über die bisher durchgeführten fünf Change-Fitness-Studien und berichten einige die speziell für Führungskräfte zentralen Ergebnisse über den Zeitraum von 2010 bis 2018. Dies betrifft die Erfolgsrate durchgeführter Veränderungsprozesse, positive und kritische Aspekte von Change-Prozessen sowie die sich durchziehenden unterschiedlichen Perspektiven auf die Change-Fitness der drei Funktionen Unternehmensleitung, mittlere Führungskräfte und Mitarbeiter. Für Letztere werden Ergebnisse der Change-Fitness-Studie 2016 dargestellt und im Anschluss mit ihren Implikationen für Führung diskutiert. Der Beitrag schließt mit einem Fazit, das neben einer kurzen Zusammenfassung auch Implikationen für die zukünftige Forschung und Empfehlungen für die Praxis enthält.

Literatur

  1. Appelbaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: revisiting Kotter’s 1996 change model. Journal of Management Development, 31, 764–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armenakis, A.A., Harris, S.G., & Mossholder, K.W. (1993). Creating readiness for organizational change. Human Relations, 46(3), 1–23.Google Scholar
  3. Balogun, J., & Johnson, G. (2004). Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 523–549.Google Scholar
  4. Berger, P., & Luckmann, T. (1969). Die gesellschaftliche Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit. Frankfurt: Fischer.Google Scholar
  5. Bryant, M., & Stensaker, I. (2011). The competing roles of middle management: Negotiated order in the context of change. Journal of Change Management, 11(3), 353–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchanan, D.A., & Boddy, D. (1992). The Expertise of the Change Agent: Public Performance and Backstage Activity. London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., & Brown, K.G. (2016). Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. Human Relations, 69(1), 33–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fay, D., & Lührmann, H. (2004). Current themes in organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Felfe, J., & Bittner, T. (2014). Veränderungen erfolgreich managen mit transformationaler Führung. PERSONALquarterly, 66(1), 10–14.Google Scholar
  10. Ford, J.D., & Ford, L.W. (2010). Stop blaming resistance to change and start using it. Organizational Dynamics, 39(1), 24–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fugate, M., Prussia, G.E., & Kinicki, A.J. (2012). Managing employee withdrawal during organizational change: The role of threat appraisal. Journal of Management, 38(3), 890–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghitulescu, B.E. (2013). Making change happen: The impact of work context on adaptive and proactive behaviors. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 49(2), 206–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glor, E.D. (2015). Building theory of organizational innovation, change, fitness and survival. The Innovation Journal, 20(2), 1–154.Google Scholar
  14. Holt, D.T., Armenakis, A.A., Feild, H.S., & Harris, S.G. (2007). Readiness for organizational change: The systematic development of a scale. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43, 232–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hon, A.H.Y., Bloom, M., & Crant, J.M. (2014). Overcoming resistance to change and enhancing creative performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), 919–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huy, Q.N. (2002). Emotional balancing of organizationalcontinuity and radical change: The contribution of middle managers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(1), 31–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huy, Q.N., Corley, K.G., & Kraatz, M.S. (2014). From support to mutiny: Shifting legitimacy judgments and emotional reactions impacting the implementation of radical change. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), 1650–1680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones, R.A., Jimmieson, N.L., & Griffiths, A. (2005). The impact of organizational culture and reshaping capabilities on change implementation success: The mediating role of readiness for change. Journal of Management Studies, 42, 361–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Judge, W.Q. (2011). Building Organizational Capacity for Change: The Strategic Leader’s New Mandate. New York, NY: Business Expert Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kok, R.A.W., & Driessen, P.H. (2012). Antecedents of market orientation in semi-public service organizations: A study of Dutch housing associations. Service Industries Journal, 32, 1901–1921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kotter, J.P. (1990). A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. New York, London: Free Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  23. Krüger, W. (2002). Excellence in Change – Wege zur strategischen Erneuerung. Wiesbaden: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krummaker, S., & Vogel, B. (2013). An in-depth view of the facets, antecedents, and effects of leaders’ change competency: Lessons from a case study. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 49(3), 279–307.Google Scholar
  25. Lammers, F., & Schmidt, C. - Mutaree GmbH (2010). Change-Readiness-Studie 2010 (Change-Fitness-Studie 2010). Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.de/content/change-fitness-studie
  26. Lewin, K. (1952). Field Theory in Social Science: Selected Theoretical Papers. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  27. Lippitt, R., Watson, J., & Westley, B. (1958). The Dynamics of Planned Change. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace and World.Google Scholar
  28. Lockett, A., Currie, G., Finn, R., Martin, G., & Waring, J. (2014). The iInfluence of social position on sensemaking about organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4), 1102–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moran, J.W., & Brightman, B.K. (2001). Leading organizational change. Career Development International, 6(2), 111–118.Google Scholar
  30. Morgan, D., & Zeffane, R. (2003). Employee involvement, organizational change and trust in management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(1), 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mutaree GmbH (2010). Change-Fitness-Studie 2010/2011. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.com/content/change-fitness-studie
  32. Mutaree GmbH (2012). Change-Fitness-Studie 2012/2013. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.com/content/change-fitness-studie
  33. Mutaree GmbH (2014). Change-Fitness-Studie 2014/2015. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.com/content/change-fitness-studie
  34. Mutaree GmbH (2016). Change-Fitness-Studie 2016/2017. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.com/content/change-fitness-studie
  35. Mutaree GmbH (2018). Change-Fitness-Studie 2018/2019. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.com/content/change-fitness-studie
  36. Oreg, S., Vakola, M., & Armenakis, A. (2011). Change recipients’ reactions to organizational change: A 60-year review of quantitative studies. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47(4), 461–524.Google Scholar
  37. Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R.I. (1999).The Knowing-Doing Gap: How Smart Companies Turn Knowledge into Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press Books.Google Scholar
  38. Raelin, J.D., & Cataldo, C.G. (2011). Whither middle management? Empowering interface and the failure of organizational change. Journal of Change Management, 11(4), 481–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rafferty, A.E., Jimmieson, N.L., & Armenakis, A.A. (2013). Change readiness: A multilevel review. Journal of Management, 39(1), 110–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sackmann, S.A. (1993). Die lernfähige Organisation: Theoretische Überlegungen, gelebte und reflektierte Praxis. In: G. Fatzer (Hrsg.), Organisationsentwicklung für die Zukunft. Köln: Edition Humanistische Psychologie, S. 227–254.Google Scholar
  41. Sackmann, S.A., Eggenhofer-Rehart, P.M., & Friesl, M. (2009). Sustainable change: Long-term efforts toward developing a learning organization. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 45(4), 521–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sackmann, S.A., & Schmidt, C. – Mutaree GmbH (2012). Change-Fitness-Studie 2012. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.de/content/change-fitness-studie
  43. Sackmann, S.A., Eichel, V., & Schmidt, C. – Mutaree GmbH (2014). Change-Fitness-Studie 2014. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.de/content/change-fitness-studie
  44. Sackmann, S.A., Eichel, V., & Schmidt, C. – Mutaree GmbH (2016). Change-Fitness-Studie 2016. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.de/content/change-fitness-studie
  45. Sackmann, S.A., Eichel, V., & Schmidt, C. – Mutaree GmbH (2018). Change-Fitness-Studie 2018. Eltville-Erbach: Mutaree. www.mutaree.de/content/change-fitness-studie
  46. Schulz, M. (2003). Impermanent institutionalization: The duration dependence of organizational rule changes. Industrial and Corporate Change, 12(5), 1077–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schumpeter, J.A. (1994). Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. London, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Schwarz, G. (2012). Shaking fruit out of the tree: Temporal effects and life cycle in organizational change research. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 48(3) 342–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwarz, G.M., & Huber, G.P. (2008). Challenging organizational change research. British Journal of Management, 19(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shea, C.M., Jacobs, S.R., Esserman, D.A., Bruce, K., & Weiner, B.J. (2014). Organizational readiness for implementing change: a psychometric assessment of a new measure. Implementation Science, 9(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smollan, R.K. (2015). The personal costs of organizational change: A qualitative study. Public Performance & Management Review, 39(1), 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stanley, D.J., Meyer, J.P., & Topolnytsky, L. (2005). Employee cynicism and resistance to organizational change. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19(4), 429–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Starbuck, W.H., & Hedberg, B. (2001). How organizations learn from success and failure. In: M. Dierkes, A. Berthoin Antal, J. Child, & I. Nonaka (Hrsg.), Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Stewart, J., & Kringas, P. (2003). Change management strategy and values in six agencies from the Australian public service. Public Administration Review, 63(6), 675–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sydow, J., Schreyögg, G., & Koch, J. (2009). Organizational path dependence: Opening the back box. Academy of Management Review, 34(4), 689–709.Google Scholar
  56. Todnem By, R. (2005). Organisational change management: A critical review. Journal of Change Management, 5(4), 369–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tsoukas, H., & Chia, R. (2002). On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organization Science, 13(5), 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ulich, E. (1994). Arbeitspsychologie, 3. überarb. und erw. Aufl. Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel.Google Scholar
  59. Vakola, M. (2013). Multilevel readiness to organizational change: A conceptual approach. Journal of Change Management, 13(1), 96–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Walinga, J. (2008). Toward a theory of change-readiness: The roles of appraisal, focus, and perceived control. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44, 315–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Weiner, B.J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implementation Science, 4(1), 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonja Sackmann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Verena Eichel
    • 1
  • Claudia Schmidt
    • 2
  1. 1.Universität der Bundeswehr MünchenNeubibergDeutschland
  2. 2.Mutaree GmbHWiesbaden-IgstadtDeutschland

Personalised recommendations