The ongoing trend of enforcing lower fleet consumption and tightening emission standards, combined with ever-increasing customer demands and severe competition on the global market is the main driving force for further improvement of the internal combustion engine regarding its efficiency and emissions. Additional challenges are posed by the ongoing powertrain hybridization, as it imposes a significant improvement of the efficiency over the entire engine map [103]. Hence, new concepts are needed to guarantee the clean and energy-saving engine operation in a very wide range of operating conditions, especially at high loads, where knock typically occurs [122].


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© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK)University of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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