Advertisement

The Holocaust as Metaphor: Holocaust and Anti-Bullying Education in the United States

  • George DalboEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Holocaust Education – Historisches Lernen – Menschenrechtsbildung book series (HEM)

Zusammenfassung

Ausgehend von dem im Jahr 2012 veröffentlichten Essay von Selinger, geht der Beitrag der Frage nach, ob und wie die Einbeziehung von Anti-Mobbing-Erzählungen die Darstellung der Geschichte des Holocaust in Lehrpläne und Programmplanungen verändert.

Es wird analysiert, wie sich Anti-Mobbing-Erziehung in den vier in den USA weitverbreiteten Holocaust-Curricula-Programmen konkretisiert: Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO), the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), Holocaust Museum Houston (HMH) und das Holocaust Memorial Resource and Education Center in Florida (HCF).

Abstract

In 2012, Selinger’s essay highlighted the growing movement in the United States in which the Holocaust and anti-bullying education are brought into correlation. This may seem a bit extreme, however, the example is not very far-fetched. Guided by the research question if the inclusion of anti-bullying narratives shape Holocaust histories in educational curricula and programming, this article analyzes how Holocaust narratives are presented in four widely circulated Holocaust curricula programming tied to anti-bullying education in the United States: Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO), the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), Holocaust Museum Houston (HMH), and Holocaust Memorial Resource and Education Center of Florida (HCF).

References

  1. Anti-Defamation League. 2016. The escalation of hate: Lesson for middle and high school students. https://www.adl.org/sites/default/files/documents/empowering-young-people-the-escalation-of-hate.pdf. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  2. Anti-Defamation League. 2018. Education. https://www.adl.org/education-and-resources/resources-for-educators-parents-families. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  3. Bailey, Robb. 2015. UpStander field trip experience: Empowering youth to combat prejudice and hate. https://www.holocaustedu.org/about/newsletters. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  4. Barton, Keith, and Linda Levstik. 2004. Teaching history for the common good. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer, Yehuda. 2001. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Capuzzi, David, and Douglas Gross, eds. 2014. Youth at risk: A prevention resource for counselors, teachers, and parents. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Carrier, Peter, Eckhardt Fuchs, and Torben Messinger. 2015. The international status of education about the holocaust: A global mapping of textbooks and curricula. New York: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  8. Coloroso, Barbara. 2007. Extraordinary evil: A short walk to genocide. Toronto: Viking.Google Scholar
  9. Cowan, Paula, and Henry Maitles. 2016. Understanding and teaching holocaust education. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Davis, Ozro. 1996. NCSS in retrospect: Bulletin 92. Washington DC: National Council for the Social Studies.Google Scholar
  11. Echoes & Reflections. 2013. The risks when connecting bullying to the holocaust, New York: Anti-Defamation League. http://echoesandreflections.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/The-Risks-When-Connecting-Bullying-to-the-Holocaust.pdf. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  12. Echoes & Reflections. 2014. Echoes and reflection: Teacher’s resource guide. New York: Anti-Defamation League.Google Scholar
  13. Echoes & Reflections. 2018. About, New York: Anti-Defamation League. http://echoesandreflections.org. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  14. Facing History and Ourselves. 2015. How do we know it works: Researching the impact of facing history and ourselves since 1976. https://www.facinghistory.org/sites/default/files/How%20Do%20We%20Know%20It%20Works%20Master%20Eval%20Summary%2011_6_2015.pdf. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  15. Facing History and Ourselves. 2017. Holocaust and human behavior. Brookline: Facing History and Ourselves.Google Scholar
  16. Facing History and Ourselves. 2018. About Us. https://www.facinghistory.org/about-us. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  17. Fernekes, William and Samuel Totten. 2004. Human Rights, Genocide and Social Responsibility. In Teaching about Genocide: Issues, approaches and resources, ed. Samuel Totten, 249–274. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Florida’s Holocaust Education Bill, SB 660. 2004. http://www.holocaustresources.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/FL-HolocaustMandate.pdf. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  19. Gray, Michael. 2014. Contemporary Debates in Holocaust Education. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holocaust Memorial Resource and Education Center of Florida. 2018a. About. https://www.holocaustedu.org/about. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  21. Holocaust Memorial Resource and Education Center of Florida. 2018b. Upstanders: Stand up to bullying initiative. https://www.holocaustedu.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Upstanders-brochure.pdf. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  22. Holocaust Museum Houston. 2017a. All behaviors count. https://www.hmh.org/sc_All_Behaviors_Count.shtml. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  23. Holocaust Museum Houston. 2017b. Outreach. Bearing Witness 1 (2): 29.Google Scholar
  24. Holocaust Museum Houston. 2018a. History of the holocaust museum of houston. https://www.hmh.org/au_history.shtml. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  25. Holocaust Museum Houston. 2018b. Our mission. http://hmh.org/au_home.shtml. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  26. Kalman, Izzy. 2016. Calling the holocaust “Bullying” is offensive. Psychology today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/resilience-bullying/201605/calling-the-holocaust-bullying-is-offensive. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  27. Krippendorff, Klaus. 2004. Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Minton, Stephen. 2016. Marginalization and aggression from bullying to genocide: Critical education and psychological perspectives. New York: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  29. Morris, Marla. 2001. Curriculum and the holocaust: Competing sites of memory and representation. Mahwah: Erlbaum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Newmann, Fred, Helen Marks, and Adam Gamoran. 1996. Authentic pedagogy and student performance. American Journal of Education 104 (4): 280–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nonprofit Search. 2018. Holocaust memorial resource & education center of florida. http://cffound.guidestar.org/nonprofit.aspx?orgId=2646. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  32. Novick, Peter. 1999. The holocaust in American life. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  33. Parsons, William and Samuel Totten. 1993. Guidelines for teaching about the holocaust, United States holocaust museum memorial. https://www.ushmm.org/educators/teaching-about-the-holocaust/general-teaching-guidelines. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  34. Power, Samantha. 2013. A problem from hell: America and the age of genocide. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Ragland, Rachel, and Daniel Rosenstein. 2014. Holocaust education: Analysis of curricula and frameworks: A case study of illinois. The Social Studies 105 (4): 175–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Riley, Karen, and Samuel Totten. 2002. Understanding matters: Holocaust curricula and the social studies classroom. Theory & Research in Social Education 30 (4): 541–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schweber, Simone. 2004. Making sense of the holocaust: Lessons from classroom practice. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  38. Schweber, Simone. 2006. “Breaking down barriers” or “Building strong christians”: Two treatments of holocaust history. Theory & Research in Social Education 34 (1): 9–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Selinger, Evan. 2012. Was Hitler a bully? Teaching the holocaust to kids. In: Slate. http://www.slate.com/blogs/xx_factor/2012/04/20/bullying_hitler_and_kindergartners_what_should_kids_learn_about_the_holocaust_.html. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  40. Sepinwall, Harriet. 1999. Incorporating holocaust education into K-4 curriculum and teaching in the United States. Social Studies and the Young Learner 10:5–8.Google Scholar
  41. Spielberg, Steven. 1993. Schindler’s List [Film]. Hollywood: Universal Pictures.Google Scholar
  42. Stambler, Leah. 2008. Character and civics education as scaffolds for teaching about the holocaust. In Paths to Teaching the Holocaust, ed. Tibbi Duboys, 51–82. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Thornton, Stephen. 2005. Teaching social studies that matters: Curriculum for active learning. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  44. Totten, Samuel. 1999. Should there be holocaust education for K-4 students? The answer is no. Social Studies and the Young Learner 12 (1): 36–39.Google Scholar
  45. Totten, Samuel. 2000. Teaching the holocaust in the United States. In Teaching the holocaust: Educational dimensions, principles and practice, ed. Ian Davies, 93–104. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. Totten, Samuel, and Karen Riley. 2005. Authentic pedagogy and the holocaust: A critical review of state sponsored holocaust curricula. Theory & Research in Social Education 33 (1): 120–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 1994. Why teach about the holocaust? https://www.ushmm.org/educators/teaching-about-the-holocaust/why-teach-about-the-holocaust. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.
  48. Worthington, David. 2007. American exceptionalism and the Shoah: The case of the United States holocaust memorial museum. Bloomington: Indiana University.Google Scholar
  49. Ziv, Stav. 2016, June 20. ‘Invaluable Lessons’: More States Making Holocaust, Genocide Education a Must. In: Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/more-states-making-holocaust-genocide-education-must-472003. Accessed 8 Mar 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations