Discussion and Conclusion

  • Riema AbdunnurEmail author


According to the previous results, clinical signs and symptoms were more frequent in violinists than in controls; more TMJ sounds and pain, smaller and more painful maximum mouth opening and more parafunctional habits (1, 3, 4, 7). Concerning the mandible deviation on opening, there were more deviations to the right side, whereas violinists who played left-handed (the instrument was held on the right side) had mandibular deviations toward the left side, reported pain in the left TMJ area and had joint noises with stiffness in the right TMJ area. This was the mirror image of the signs observed in the right-handed players (1). Radiographic abnormalities in the TMJs were not present (3, 4). Degenerative changes after long periods of violin playing were found in two case reports (8, 9).


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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical University of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

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