Ressourcen von Familienunternehmen

  • Birgit FeldenEmail author
  • Andreas Hack
  • Christina Hoon


Um die zu Beginn des zweiten Teils aufgeworfene Frage zu beantworten, ob Familienunternehmen einen komparativen Vorteil gegenüber Nicht-Familienunternehmen besitzen und somit erfolgreicher am Markt agieren können, müssen wir uns im Folgenden anschauen, über welche Ressourcen Familienunternehmen verfügen und wie der Einsatz und die Bündelung dieser Ressourcen zu einem nachhaltigen Wettbewerbsvorteil führen kann. Auf dieser Basis lässt sich diskutieren, ob Familienunternehmen aufgrund ihrer spezifischen Ressourcenbündel im Vergleich mit Nicht-Familienunternehmen erfolgreicher agieren können und wie sich diese Leistungsvorteile ergeben.


  1. Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S.-W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, R. C., & Reeb, D. M. (2003). Founding-family ownership and firm performance: Evidence from S&P 500. Journal of Finance, 58(3), 1301–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronoff, C. E., & Ward, J. L. (1995). Family-owned businesses: A thing of the past or a model of the future? Family Business Review, 8(2), 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arregle, J.-L., Hitt, M., Sirmon, D., & Very, P. (2007). The development of organizational social capital: Attributes of family firms. Journal of Management Studies, 44(1), 73–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Astrachan, C. B., & Botero, I. C. (2018). “We are a family firm”: An exploration of the motives for communicating the family business brand. Journal of Family Business Management, 8, 2–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage? Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barney, J. B. (2002). Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Barney, J. B., Ketchen, D. J., Jr., & Wright, M. (2011). The Future of resource-based theory: Revitalization or decline? Journal of Management, 37(5), 1299–1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Binz, C., Hair, J. F., Pieper, T. M., & Baldauf, A. (2013). Exploring the effect of distinct family firm reputation on consumers’ preferences. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 4(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Björnberg, A., & Nicholson, N. (2012). Emotional ownership. The next generation’s relationship with the family firm. Family Business Review, 25(4), 374–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brigham, K. H., Lumpkin, G. T., Payne, G. T., & Zachary, M. A. (2014). Researching long-term orientation: A validation study and recommendations for future research. Family Business Review, 27, 72–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bubolz, M. M. (2001). Family as source, user, and builder of social capital. Journal of Socio-Economics, 30(2), 129–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burt, R. S. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(2), 339–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carnes, C. M., & Ireland, R. D. (2013). Familiness and innovation: Resource bundling as the missing link. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 37(6), 1399–1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Sharma, P. (2005). Trends and directions in the development of a strategic management theory of the family firm. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29(5), 555–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., Pearson, A. W., & Barnett, T. (2012). Family involvement, family influence, and family-centered non-economic goals in small firms. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 36(2), 267–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., & Sharma, P. (1999). Defining the family business by behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23(4), 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coleman, J. S. (1995). Grundlagen der Sozialtheorie. Band 1: Handlungen und Handlungssysteme. München: Oldenbourg.Google Scholar
  20. Distelberg, B., & Sorenson, R. L. (2009). Updating systems concepts in family businesses – A focus on values, resource flows, and adaptability. Family Business Review, 22(1), 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dyer, W. G. (2018). Are family firms really better? Reexamining “Examining the ‚family effect‘ on firm performance”. Family Business Review, 31, 240–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eddleston, K. A. (2011). The family as an internal and external resource to the firm: The importance of building a family firm identity. In R. L. Sorenson (Hrsg.), Family Business and Social Capital (S. 186–197). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Faghfouri, P., Kraiczy, N. D., Hack, A., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2015). Ready for a crisis? How supervisory boards affect crisis readiness of German small and medium-sized family firms. Review of Managerial Science, 9, 317–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gedajlovic, E., Lubatkin, M., & Schulze, W. S. (2004). Crossing the threshold from founder management to professional management: A governance perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 41(5), 899–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grant, R. M. (1996). Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments: Organizational capability as knowledge integration. Organization Science, 7(4), 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Habbershon, T. G., & Williams, M. L. (1999). A resource-based framework for assessing the strategic advantages of family firms. Family Business Review, 12(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Habbershon, T. G., Williams, M. L., & MacMillan, I. C. (2003). A unified systems perspective of family firm performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hack, A. (2009). Sind Familienunternehmen anders? Eine kritische Bestandsaufnahme des aktuellen Forschungsstands. Journal of Business Economics, ZfB-Special Issue, 2, 1–29.Google Scholar
  30. Hack, A., Faghfouri, P., & von Preen, A. (2011). Sinn und Unsinn von Kapitalbeteiligungen für Fremdmanager in Familienunternehmen. Zeitschrift für Controlling & Management Sonderheft, 3, 46–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanifan, L. J. (1916). The rural school community center. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 67, 130–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hauswald, H., & Hack, A. (2013). The impact of family control/influence on stakeholders’ perceptions of benevolence. Family Business Review, 26(4), 356–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haynes, G. W., Onochie, J. I., & Muske, G. (2007). Is what’s good for the business, good for the family: A financial assessment. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28(3), 395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Irava, W. J., & Moores, K. (2010). Clarifying the strategic advantage of familiness: Unbundling its dimensions and highlighting its paradoxes. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1(3), 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jaskiewicz, P., Uhlenbruck, K., Balkin, D. B., & Reay, T. (2013). Is Nepotism Good or Bad? Types of Nepotism and Implications for Knowledge Management. Family Business Review, 26(2), 121–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krackhardt, D. (1992). The strength of strong ties. The importance of philos in organizations. In N. Nohria & R. Eccles (Hrsg.), Networks and Organizations. Structure, Form, and Action (S. 216–239). Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lude, M., & Prügl, R. (2018). Why the family business brand matters: Brand authenticity and the family firm trust inference. Journal of Business Research, 89, 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McGrath, H., & O’Toole, T. (2017). Extending the concept of familiness to relational capability: A Belgian micro-brewery study. International Small Business Journal, 36(2), 194–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., & Chervany, N. L. (1998). Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller, D., & Le Breton-Miller, I. (2005). Managing for the long run: Lessons in competitive advantage from great family businesses. Boston, MA.: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  42. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Olson, P. D., Zuiker, V. S., Danes, S. M., Stafford, K., Heck, R. K. Z., & Duncan, K. A. (2003). The impact of the family and business on family business sustainability. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 639–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Orth, R., & Green, M. T. (2009). Consumer loyalty of family versus non-family business: The roles of store image, trust and satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(4), 248–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pearson, A. W., Carr, J. S., & Shaw, J. C. (2008). Towards a theory of familiness. A social capital perspective. Entreprenuership Theory & Practice, 32(6), 949–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Penrose, E. T. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.Google Scholar
  47. Peteraf, M. A. (1993). The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resource-based view. Strategic Management Journal, 14(3), 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pijanowski, T., Hack, A., Kraiczy, N. D., & von Schlippe, A. (2013). Bank loan officers’ perceptions of family firms. How similarity attraction influences loan availability decisions. Working Paper. University of Bern.Google Scholar
  49. Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An integrative model of organizational trust: Past, present, and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sirmon, D. G., & Hitt, M. A. (2003). Managing resources: Linking unique resources, management, and wealth creation in family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 27(4), 339–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stafford, K., Duncan, K. A., Danes, S. M., & Winter, M. (1999). A research model of sustainable family business. Family Business Review, 12(3), 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Steier, L. (2001). Family firms, plural forms of governance, and the evolving role of trust. Family Business Review, 14(4), 353–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sujan, M. (1985). Consumer knowledge: Effects on evaluation strategies mediating consumer judgments. Journal of Consumer Research, 12,31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sundaramurthy, C., & Kreiner, G. E. (2008). Governing by managing identity boundaries: The case of family businesses. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 32(3), 415–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tabor, W., Chrisman, J. J., Madison, K., & Vardaman, J. M. (2018). Nonfamily members in family firms: A review and future research agenda. Family Business Review, 31(1), 54–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tagiuri, R., & Davis, J. A. (1996). Bivalent attributes of the family firm. Family Business Review, 9(2), 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vardaman, J. M., Allen, D. G., & Bryan, L. R. (2018). We are friends but are we family? Organizational identification and nonfamily employee turnover. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 42(2), 290–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Von Schlippe, A., & Groth, T. (2007). The Power of Stories- Zur Funktion von Geschichten in Familienunternehmen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Waldkirch, M., Nordqvist, M., & Melin, L. (2018). CEO turnover in family firms: How social exchange relationships influence whether a non-family CEO stays or leaves. Human Resource Management Review, 28(1), 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Whitener, E. M., Brodt, S. E., & Korsgaard, A. M. (1998). Managers as initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 513–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Williams, M. (2001). In whom we trust: Group membership as an affective context for trust development. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 377–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wright, M., Hoskisson, R. E., & Busenitz, L. W. (2001). Firm rebirth: Buyouts as facilitators of strategic growth and entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Executive, 15(1), 111–125.Google Scholar
  65. Zellweger, T. M., Eddleston, K. A., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2010). Exploring the concept of familiness: Introducing family firm identity. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1(1), 54–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zellweger, T. M., Kellermanns, F. W., Chrisman, J. J., & Chua, J. H. (2012). Family control and family firm valuation by family CEOs: The importance of intentions for transgenerational control. Organization Science, 23(3), 851–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für EntrepreneurshipHochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht BerlinBerlinDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für Organisation und PersonalUniversität BernBernSchweiz
  3. 3.Stiftungslehrstuhl Führung von Familienunternehmen; Institut für Familienunternehmen (iFUn)Universität BielefeldBielefeldDeutschland

Personalised recommendations