Advertisement

Can Attitude Theory Improve Rational Choice Theory or Vice Versa?

A Comparison and Integration of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Value-Expectancy Theory
  • Karl-Dieter Opp
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

There are two theories that are widely used in the social sciences in different disciplines: one is the attitude theory by M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, the other is rational choice theory (RCT). There is so far no detailed comparison of the theories that includes a proposal for integrating them. Such a comparison and integration is the goal of the present paper.

There are two versions of Fishbein and Ajzen’s attitude theory. This essay focuses on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by Ajzen which is a more recent and improved version of the earlier theory of reasoned action. The version of RCT analyzed is value-expectancy theory (VET), sometimes also called expectancy-value theory or subjective expected utility theory. In a first step, the theories to be compared are exposed so that it is clear what is to be compared. In a next step, their differences and similarities are outlined and discussed (see the summary in Table 1). In particular, RCT does not contain intentions and attitudes, and does not explain preferences. In TPB, subjective utility maximization is not a explicit component of the theory. Finally, an integration of both theories is proposed (see the summary in Figure 2).

In the integrated model, it is suggested, among other things, to add intentions to RCT and to include hypotheses about the explanation of preferences and beliefs of TPB in RCT. A major difference between both theories is that TPB focuses on attitudes and not on goals, whereas VET assumes that behavior is goal-oriented. We add goals and a link between attitudes (and other variables) and goals. Another component of the new model is the claim that a condition for any behavior to be performed is the existence of actual behavioral control. Internalized norms that are omitted in TPB are included. The analysis indicates that TPB implicitly assumes utility maximization, which becomes part of the integrated theory.

Schlüsselbegriffe

Erklärung von Einstellungen „rational choice“-Theorie Fishbein-Ajzen-Theorie Theorie geplanten Verhaltens Erklärung sozialen Handelns 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Ajzen, Icek. 1985. From Intentions to Actions: A theory of planned behavior. In Action-control: From Cognition to Behavior, edited by J. Kuhl and J. Beckman. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, Icek. 1988. Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen, Icek. 1991. The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50: 179–211.Google Scholar
  4. Ajzen, Icek. 1996. The Social Psychology of Decision Making. In Social Psychology. Handbook of Basic Principles, edited by E. T. Higgins and A. W. Kruglanski. New York and London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ajzen, Icek. 2005 (2nd ed.). Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ajzen, Icek. 2012. The Theory of Planned Behavior. In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology, edited by P. A. M. van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski and E. T. Higgins. New York: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  7. Ajzen, Icek. 2015. Commentary: The Theory of Planned Behaiour is Alive and Well, and not Ready to Retire: A Commentary on Sniehotta, Presseau, and Araújo-Soares. Health Psychology Review 9 (2): 131–137.Google Scholar
  8. Ajzen, Icek, and Martin Fishbein. 1969. The Prediction of Behavioral Intentions in a Choice Siuation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 5 (4): 400–416.Google Scholar
  9. Ajzen, Icek, and Martin Fishbein. 1980. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  10. Ajzen, Icek, and Martin Fishbein. 2000. Attitudes and the Attitude-Behavior Relation: Reasoned and Automatic Processes. European Review of Social Psychology 11 (1, edited by Wolfgang Stroebe and Miles Hewstone): 1–33.Google Scholar
  11. Ajzen, Icek, and Sana Sheikh. 2013. Action versus Inaction: Anticipated Affect in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Appied Psychology 43 (1): 155–162.Google Scholar
  12. Atkinson, John W. 1957. Motivational Determinants of Risk-Taking Behavior. Psychological Review 64 (6): 359–372.Google Scholar
  13. Bamberg, Sebastian, Harald Gumbl, and Peter Schmidt (Eds.). 2000. Rational Choice und theoriegeleitete Evaluationsforschung. Opladen: Leske & Budrich.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, Gary S. 1976. The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Binmore, Ken. 2009. Rational Decisions. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Boudon, Raymond. 1998. Social Mechanisms without Black Boxes. In Social Mechanisms. An Analytical Approach to Social Theory, edited by P. Hedström and R. Swedberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Boudon, Raymond. 2003. Beyond Rational Choice Theory. Annual Review of Sociology 29: 1–21.Google Scholar
  18. Coleman, James S. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, Mass., and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. de Leeuw, Astrid, Pierre Valois, Icek Ajzen, and Peter Schmidt. 2015. “Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Key Beliefs Underlying Pro-Environmental Behavior in High-School-Students: Implications for Educational Interventions “ Journal of Environmental Psychology 42(1): 128–138.Google Scholar
  20. Edwards, Ward. 1954. The Theory of Decision Making. Psychological Bulletin 51 (4): 380–417.Google Scholar
  21. Etzioni, Amitai. 1986. The Case for a Multiple-Utility Conception. Economics and Philosophy 2: 159–183.Google Scholar
  22. Feather, Norman T. 1959. Subjective Probability and Decision Under Uncertainty. Psychological Review 66 (3): 150–164.Google Scholar
  23. Feather, Norman T. 1982. Expectations and Actions: Expectancy-Value Models in Psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Feather, Norman T. 1990. Bridging the Gap betweeen Values and Actions. Recent Applications of the Expectancy-Value Model. In Handbook of Motivation and Cognition. Foundations of Social Behavior, volume 2, edited by E. T. Higgins and R. M. Sorrentino. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fishbein, Martin. 1963. An Investigation of the Relationship between Beliefs about an Object and the Attitude Towards the Object. Human Relations 16 (3): 233–248.Google Scholar
  26. Fishbein, Martin, and Icek Ajzen. 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior. An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  27. Fishbein, Martin, and Icek Ajzen. 2010. Predicting and Changing Behavior. The Reasoned Action Approach. New York and Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gold, Gregg J. 2011. Review of Predicting and Changing Behavior: The Reasoned Action Approach. The Journal of Social Psychology 151 (3): 382–385.Google Scholar
  29. Kruglanski, Arie W., Katarzyna Jasko, Marina Chernikova, Maxim Milyavsky, Maxim Babush, Conrad Baldner, and Antonio Pierro. 2015. The Rocky Road From Attitudes to Behaviors: Charting the Goal Systemic Course of Actions. Psychological Review 124(4): 598–620.Google Scholar
  30. Mayerl, Jochen. 2009. Kognitive Grundlagen sozialen Verhaltens. Framing, Einstellungen und Rationalität. Wiesbaden: VS – Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  31. Opp, Karl-Dieter. 1999. Contending Conceptions of the Theory of Rational Action. Journal of Theoretical Politics 11 (2): 171–202.Google Scholar
  32. Opp, Karl-Dieter. 2017a. Rational Choice Theory and Methodological Individualism. In The Cambridge Handbook of Social Theory, edited by P. Kivisto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  33. Opp, Karl-Dieter. 2017b. When Do People Follow Norms and When Do They Pursue Their Interests? Implications of Dual-Process Models and Rational Choice Theory, Tested for Protest Participation. In Social Dilemmas, Institutions and the Evolution of Cooperation, edited by B. Jann and W. Przepiorka: de Gruyter/Oldenbourg (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  34. Ostrom, Elinor. 2005. Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Ostrom, Elinor. 2007. Institutional Rational Choice. An Assessment of the Institutional Analysis and Development Framwork. In Theories of the Policy Process, edited by P. A. Sabatier. Cambridge, MA: Westview.Google Scholar
  36. Riker, William H., and Peter C. Ordeshook. 1973. An Introduction to Positive Political Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Schoemaker, Paul J.H. 1982. The Expected Utility Model: Its Variants, Purposes, Evidence and Limitations. Journal of Economic Literature 20: 529–563.Google Scholar
  38. Simon, Herbert A. 1997 (4th ed, first 1945). Administrative Behavior. A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  39. Steinmetz, Holger, Michael Knappstein, Icek Ajzen, Peter Schmidt, and Rüdiger Kabst. 2016. How Effective are Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior? Zeitschrift für Psychologie 224 (3): 216–233.Google Scholar
  40. Stigler, George J. 1950a. The Development of Utility Theory. I. Journal of Political Economy 58 (4): 307–327.Google Scholar
  41. Stigler, George J. 1950b. The Development of Utility Theory. II. Journal of Political Economy 58 (5): 373–396.Google Scholar
  42. Wigfield, Allan, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles. 2000. Expectancy-Value Theorry of Achievement Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25 (1): 68–81.Google Scholar
  43. Winkelnkemper, Philip, Icek Ajzen, and Peter Schmidt. 2017. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Meta-Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Submitted manuscript.Google Scholar
  44. Yang-Wallentin, Fan, Peter Schmidt, Eldad Davidov, and Sebastian Bamberg. 2004. “Is There Any Interaction Effect Between Intention and Perceived Behavioral Control?.” Methods of Psychological Research Online 8(2): 127–157.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HamburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations