From ‘speech’ to ‘gesture’: The ‘oral’ as norm in ‘language’ research

  • Robert UllrichEmail author
Part of the Interdisziplinäre Anthropologie book series (ANTHRO)


The term ‘language’ is used ambiguously by scientists. As a consequence, up until now no attempt to define ‘language’ as a clear-cut ‘faculty’ remains uncontested. This text investigates the term ‘language’ as a putative social construct, based on social norms. Here it is proposed that the existence of a specific social norm – the oral norm – led scientists to the idea that one aspect of ‘language’ could embrace the whole concept. Until the middle of the 20th century, an overly narrow construction of ‘language’ delimited the ascription of the term to certain populations within the human species itself. For instance, deaf people’s use of non-oral communication was considered insufficient in constituting ‘language’. The present study aims to track the form and function of the oral norm historically and its aftermaths in recent scientific discourse. A comparative approach applies the findings of this examination to current research of animal communication. As a result, it will be shown how the oral norm of the past and its remaining manifestations played and play a part in contributing to the construction of a concept of ‘language’ that is unique to humans.


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  1. 1.BerlinDeutschland

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