Differentiation of the Primitive Sex Elements at the Expense of the Y or W, and the Conservation of the Original X or Z

  • Susumu Ohno
Part of the Monographs on Endocrinology book series (ENDOCRINOLOGY, volume 1)


In the previous chapter it was shown that, with the exception of a small number of hermaphroditic species of fishes, the chromosomal sex-determining mechanism does exist in lower vertebrates. However, the X and the Y or the Z and the W of fishes and amphibians are still in an initial stage of differentiation. The two opposing sex determiners are still almost entirely homologous to each other.


Brine Shrimp Pericentric Inversion Isolation Mechanism Artemia Salina Inverted Segment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aida, T.: On the inheritance of color in a fresh-water fish Aplocheilus latipes Temmick and Schlegel, with special reference to the sex-linked inheritance. Genetics 6, 554–573 (1921).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beçak, W., M. L. Beçak, H. R. S. Nazareth, and S. Ohno: ClOse karyological kinship between the reptilian suborder Serpentes and the class Ayes. Chromosoma (Berl.) 15, 606–617 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowen, S. T.: The genetics of Artemia salina. V. Crossing-over between the X and Y chromosomes. Genetics 52, 695–710 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Kobel, H. R.: Heterochromosomen bei Vipera berus L. (Viperidae, Serpentes). Experientia 18, 173–174 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Koller, P. C., and C. D. Darlington: The genetical and mechanical properties of the sex chromosomes. I. Rattus norvegicus. J. Genet. 29, 159 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Stefani, R.: La digametia femminile in Artemia salina Leach e la costituzione del corredo cromosomico nei biotipi diploide anfigonico e diploide partenogeneico. Caryologia 16, 625–636 (1963).Google Scholar
  7. Weiler, C., and S. Ohno: Cytological confirmation of female heterogamety in the African water frog (Xenopus laevis). Cytogenetics 1, 217–223 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Winge, O., and E. Ditlevsen: Color inheritance and sex determination in Lebistes. Heredity 1, 65–83 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Yamamoto, T.: Progenies of sex-reversal females mated with sex-reversal males in the medaka, Oryzias latipes. J. exp. Zool. 146, 163–180 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susumu Ohno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyCity of Hope MedicalDuarteUSA

Personalised recommendations