Rock Mechanics pp 836-890 | Cite as

Measurement and Interpretation of Deformations and Stresses Caused by Excavation

  • Walter Wittke


Measuring devices are frequently installed in rock engineering structures to check stability during and after construction. The measurements are of particular importance during tunnel driving in order to monitor tunnel stability at any given working face, support deformation and loading, and, in the case of tunnels near the ground surface, also subsidence at that surface. By contrast, in the case of dam foundations, monitoring by way of measurement is most important during the operating state. Measurements are carried out in construction pits and on slopes in a rock mass, especially in “sensitive cases” such as when the works are adjacent to a built-up area or where landslides are a possibility. Deformation and stress measurements are also carried out in connection with exploration adits and shafts as well as trial excavations (Sections 17.5 and 17.6). The prime task here, however, is to determine the rock mass’ characteristics and the prevailing in-situ stresses in the rock mass.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Wittke
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Grundbau, Bodenmechanik, Felsmechanik und VerkehrswasserbauRWTH AachenAachenGermany

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