In many cases, real flows deviate considerably from the laminar flows treated in the previous chapters. They demonstrate a characteristic feature called turbulence. As the Reynolds number is increased, both internal flows through pipes and channels and external boundary-layers flows past bodies exhibit a noticeable change from a laminar flow form to a turbulent flow form. This transition from laminar to turbulent flow, also called the onset of turbulence is of fundamental importance for the whole science of fluid mechanics.
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