Universal Conductance Fluctuations and Quantum Interference Effects in Microstructures

  • A. D. Stone
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 83)


The low-temperature conducting properties of microstructures are observed to vary in a random manner as a function of magnetic field or carrier density. These fluctuations are sample-specific, but time-independent and reproducible within a given sample. It is now understood that these fluctuations result from random quantum interference of diffusing electrons. We review the recently-developed theory of these novel fluctuation phenomena, which predicts that the order of magnitude of the absolute fluctuations in the conductance of any metallic system is e 2 /h,as long as the conductor is probed on length scales of the order of the inelastic diffusion length. Differences between the behavior of the fluctuations measured in a two-probe as compared to a multi-probe geometry are discussed, and some recent results relevant to the multi-probe case are presented. A recent hypothesis relating these time-independent fluctuation effects to low-frequency noise in dirty metals is reviewed, and a decisive experiment for testing the theory is proposed.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. Washburn and R.A. Webb, Adv. Phys. 35, 375 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A.G. Aronov and Yu.V. Sharvin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 755 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.P. Umbach, S. Washburn, R.B. Laibowitz and R.A. Webb, Phys. Rev. B30, 4048 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.J. Skocpol, L.D. Jackel, R.E. Howard, H.G. Craighead, L.A. Fetter, P.M. Mankiewich, P. Grabbe, and D.M. Tennant, Surf. Sci 142, 14 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.C. Licini, D.J. Bishop, M.A. Kastner and J. Melngailis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 2987 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Bergmann, Phys. Rep. 107, 11, (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.A. Lee and T.V. Ramakrishnan, Rev. Mod. Phys., 57, 287 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Landauer, Phil. Mag. 21, 863 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.S. Fisher and P.A. Lee, Phys. Rev. Ma, 6851 (1981).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.D. Stone and A. Szafer, IBM Journal of Res. Dev., May, (1988), in press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E.N. Economou and C.M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 618 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Imry: In Directions in Condensed Matter Physics, ed. by G. Grinstein and G. Mazenko, World Scientific, Singapore, 1986.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Van Wees, H. Van Houten, C. Beenakker, J. Williamson, L Kouwenhoven, D. Van Der Marel, and C. Foxon, Phys. Rev. Lett., 60, 848 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Landauer and M. Bnttiker, Phys. Rev. 036, 6255 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.D. Stone and Y. Imry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 189 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett., 54., 2692 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.A. Lee and D.S. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 882 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.A. Lee and A.D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1622 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P.A. Lee, A.D. Stone and H. Fukuyama, Phys. Rev. B35, 1039 (1987).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B.L. Al’tshuler, JETP Lett. 41, 648 (1985).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B.L. Al’tshuler and D.E.Khmel’nitskii, JETP Lett. 42, 359 (1986).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Tmry, Europhys. Lett. 1, 249 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.A. Muttalib, J.L. Pichard, and A.D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2475 (1987); and references therein.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    W.J. Skocpol, P.M. Mankiewich, R.E. Howard, L.D. Jackel, D.M. Tennant and A.D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2865 (1986); Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2347 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.D. Benoit, C.P. Umbach, R.B. Laibowitz, and R.A. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2343 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Beenakker and H. Van Houten, Phys. Rev B37, 6544 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R.A. Webb, private communication and this volume.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Gefen, Y. Imry and M.Ya. Azbel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 129 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y. Isawa, H. Ebisawa and S. Maekawa J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 55, 2523 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D.P. DiVincenzo and C.L. Kane, preprint.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.D. Benoit, S. Washburn, C.P. Umbach, R.B. Laibowitz and R.A. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett.,, 1765 (1986).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.L. Kane, P.A. Lee and D.P. DiVincenzo,, Phys. Rev. B, in press.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Maekawa,Y. Isawa, H. Ebisawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 56,2 ( 1987 ); Y. Isawa, H. Ebisawa, and S. Maekawa, Proceedings of University of Tokyo International Conference on Anderson Localization, Springer-Verlag, (1987).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Hershfield and V. Ambegaokar, preprint.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Bùttiker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1761 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    H.U. Baranger, A.D. Stone and D. DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. B37 6521, (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    L.J. van der Pauw, Phillips Res. Repts. 13, 1 (1958).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    B.L. Al’tshuler and B.Z. Spivak, JETP Lett. 42, 447 (1985).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Feng, P.A. Lee, and A.D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1960 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. Dutta and P. Horn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 497 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Garfunkel, G. Alers and M. Weissman, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 33, 632 (1988); unpublished.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. Beutler, T. Meisenheimer, and N. Giordano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1240 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A.D. Stone, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 33, 632 (1988); unpublished.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. Stone
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied PhysicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations